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Faculty Publications

A place to highlight and record faculty publications.


Edwards, Mark. Faith and Foreign Affairs in the American Century. Lexington Books, 2019.

The United States has led the world in almost every way since World War I. In 1941, Life magazine publisher Henry Luce dubbed his country’s preponderant power “the American Century.” His editorial was a statement of fact but also an aspiration for countrymen to unite in promotion of a world order friendly to American interests.
Faith and Foreign Affairs in the American Century examines the nature of public involvement in American diplomacy. As a concept decades in the making, the American Century was conceived by those connected through the country’s leading foreign policy think tank, the Council on Foreign Relations. The missionary couple and Washington insiders Francis and Helen Miller, who fought to make the American empire a radically democratic one, figured prominently in that work. The Millers’ many partnerships embodied the conflicts as well as the cooperation of Christianity and secularism in the long reimagining of the United States as a global state.

Rinck, Jonathan.Ghost Stories: A Conversation with Michael Rakowitz.” Sculpture, vol. 38, no. 5, Sept. 2019, pp. 56–63.

Abstract: An interview with American artist, Michael Rakowitz is presented. Topics discussed include creation of graphic novel about the war in Iraq through sculptural, conceptual, and performance-based works; information about Rakowit's Bamiyan Buddha project in Afghanistan, part of "What Dust Will Rise" and traditional stone carving; and impact of Judaic principle of tikkun olam, "repairing the world" on the work of Rakowitz.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “When Did Wendell Berry Start Talking Like a Christian?” Christianity and Literature 68, no. 2 (2019): 272–96. 

Abstract: Around 1979, Wendell Berry began using more explicitly Christian language to articulate his view of creation. This essay traces Berry’s youthful rebellion from and eventual return to Christian language through his letters with Snyder and his essay “The Gift of Good Land.” It then contrasts the sacramental vision his early sabbath poems articulate with the pagan vision of several early poems—poems he chooses not to include in his 1985 Collected Poems. Finally, it considers how Remembering, his first novel focusing on the autobiographical character Andy Catlett, can be read as a conversion narrative.

Rinck, Jonathan. "Naturally Manufactured." Ceramics Monthly 66, no. 8 (Oct 2018): 36-39.

Abstract: The article offers information on the industrial wheel-thrown ceramic vessels of Stephen Heywood which seems the opposite of handcrafted pottery. The striking mimicry of Heywood's architectural structures and their uncannily industrial aesthetic which suggests that these are also sculptural art objects is mentioned. Also cited is Heywood's painted and stenciled markings on abandoned buildings.

McVay, Lori.  “Rural Women Leaders: Identity Formation in Rural Northern Ireland.”  In Gender and Rural Globalization: International Perspectives on Gender and Rural Development, edited by Bettina Bock and Sally Shortfall, 170-184. Boston: CABI, 2017.

Gender and Rural Development

This chapter examines the identity of women leaders in Northern Ireland in order to understand how these women managed to become leaders, against all traditional odds, and which events and life choices shaped their identity. In doing so, it elaborates how growing up in a rural context may nurture women’s confidence and readiness to lead in the sense that taking on responsibility is considered part of a rural lifestyle.


Edwards, Mark “‘Christian Nationalism in the United States’—Ebook Introduction” Religions (9 May 2017) 1-2. doi:10.3390/rel8050093

Abstract: America’s allegedly “Christian” founding and culture remains a subject of substantial debate among scholars, as well as the general public. Many persons associate conflicts over the civil religious nature of America with the rise of evangelical conservativism during the 1970s and 1980s. However, the intellectual tradition of Christian nationalism is much older and messier—as studies by historians such as Robert Handy and Frank Lambert, and newer work by Kevin Kruse, Steven Green, and Matthew Sutton, have demonstrated. Their scholarship teaches us several lessons. First, we should avoid “decline and revival” narratives and understand Christian nationalism as a construction (if not fiction) that has arisen at various times in various places to accomplish a myriad of work. Second, Christian nationalism has been advanced by a diversity of persons and groups favorable and hostile to the idea, not just by evangelical Protestants. Third, Christian nationalism can be operational even when its keywords “Christian nation” and “Christian America” are absent. Finally, and most importantly, “Christian nationalism” like “secularism” is a discursive site where politics and history meet—where assertions of identity and power are conjoined.

Kevin Healey and Robert H. Woods. “Processing Is Not Judgment, Storage Is Not Memory: A Critique of Silicon Valley’s Moral Catechism.” Journal Of Media Ethics 32, no. 1 (January 2017): 2-15. doi:10.1080/23736992.2016.1258990

Abstract: This article critiques contemporary applications of the computational metaphor, popular among Silicon Valley technologists, that views individuals and culture through the lens of computer and information systems. Taken literally, this metaphor has become entrenched as a quasi-religious ideology that obscures the moral and political-economic gatekeeping power of technology elites. Through an examination of algorithmic processing applications and life-logging devices, the authors highlight the inequitable consequences of the tendency, in popular media and marketing rhetoric, to collapse the distinctions between processing and judgment, storage and memory. Such distinctions are necessary for an ethical development of more equitable digital environments.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “If God meant to interfere: American literature and the rise of the Christian Right.” Choice: Current Reviews For Academic Libraries 54, no. 4 (December 2016): 536.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “If God Meant to Interfere: American Literature and the Rise of the Christian Right” by Christopher Douglas.

Edwards, Mark. “American Exceptionalism and Civil Religion: Reassessing the History of an Idea.” Journal Of Church And State no. 3 (2016): 580.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “American Exceptionalism and Civil Religion: Reassessing the History of an Idea” by John D. Wilsey.

Widstrom, Laura. “Redefining the Role of the Youth Worker: A Manifesto of Integration.” Journal Of Youth Ministry 15, no. 1 (Fall2016): 143-145.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Redefining the Role of the Youth Worker: A Manifesto of Integration,” by April Diaz.

Widstrom, Laura. “Washed and Still Waiting: An Evangelical Approach to Homosexuality.” Journal Of Youth Ministry 15, no. 1 (Fall 2016): 111-114.

Abstract: A review is offered for the article “Washed and Still Waiting: An Evangelical Approach to Homosexuality” by Wesley Hill published in a 2016 issue of “Journal of Evangelical Theological Society.”

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “This Day: New and Collected Sabbath Poems.” Christianity & Literature 65, no. 4 (September 2016): 524-528.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “This Day: Collected & New Sabbath Poems” by Wendell Berry.

Rinck, Jonathan. “Seventeenth-Century European Drawings in Midwestern Collections: The Age of Bernini, Rembrandt, and Poussin.” Sixteenth Century Journal 47, no. 2 (Summer 2016): 522-524.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “Seventeenth-Century European Drawings in Midwestern Collections: The Age of Bernini, Rembrandt, and Poussin” edited by Shelley Perlove and George S. Keyes.

Rinck, Jonathan.The mushroom houses of Earl Young.” Michigan History Magazine no. 4 (2016): 17-22.

Abstract: The word most often used to describe the unique designs of self-taught architect Earl Young is “organic.” His Charlevoix structures — often integrating stone walls, rolling roofs, cedar shingles, and squat profiles — look like they rose up out of the ground. And would be equally home in Middle-earth.

Rinck, Jonathan.The Richard and Helen DeVos Japanese Garden: A Haven for Sculpture, Body, and Soul.” Sculpture 35, no. 5 (June 2016): 20-21.

Abstract: A review is offered for the Richard and Helen DeVos Japanese Garden opened at the Frederik Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park which is considered suitable for sculptures.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “The ecology of memory: Augustine, Eliot, and the form of Wendell Berry’s fiction.” Christianity & Literature 65, no. 3 (June 2016): 327-342.

Abstract:Berry’s notion of memory has rich theological and literary roots, which reach to Augustine and T. S. Eliot. After a brief tour through Augustine’s theological view of memory and Eliot’s development of this in The Four Quartets, I examine Berry’s short story “Pray without Ceasing” to demonstrate how this theology works out in the form of his story, enabling his characters to understand and love the whole pattern of which they are a part. By understanding how Berry incorporates this ancient Christian view of memory in the structure of his narration, we can see how memory comprises an integral part of his culturally embattled agrarian and ecological vision.

Woods, Robert H.Kelly Skarritt-WilliamsCaleb Chan, Ken Waters, and Divine Agodzo. “Motivations for Reading the Left Behind Book Series: A Uses and Gratifications Analysis.” Journal Of Media & Religion 15, no. 2 (April 2016): 63-77.

Abstract: This uses and gratifications study investigates motivations for reading the Left Behind book series and their correlation to media use patterns; religious commitments; and the Conservative Protestant, Mainline, or Catholic Christian background of readers. The survey of 1,188 readers found that sanctified entertainment and “end times” teaching were the top reasons for reading the series. There was a significant positive relationship between religious media use and spiritual growth/development, content reaction, and accuracy. A significant positive relationship was found between religious commitment and content reaction, and religious commitment and biblical accuracy reading motivations. The study revealed different reading motivations among the various denominations, especially Catholics.

Cline, Brent Walter and Robert Bolton. “The Need for the Disabled Body in The Moviegoer.” In Walker Percy’s The Moviegoer at Fifty: New Takes on an Iconic American Novel edited by  Jennifer Levasseur and Mary A. McCay, 135-146. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2016. 

Walker Percy's The Moviegoer at FiftyBrent Walter Cline and Robert Bolton… present a roadmap for Bolling’s inward journey, exploring a variety of the book’s elements from the role of the broken body to various spiritual connections.

Widstrom, Laura. “Hopecasting.” Journal Of Youth Ministry 14, no. 2 (Spring 2016): 116-118.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “Hopecasting: Finding, Keeping and Sharing the Things Unseen” by Mark Oestreicher.

Hawthorne, John W. “New Monasticism and the Transformation of American Evangelicalism.” American Journal Of Sociology 121, no. 5 (March 2016): 1647-1649.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “New Monasticism and the Transformation of American Evangelicalism” by Wes Markofski.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “The Fall.” Anglican Theological Review 98, no. 1 (Winter 2016): 154.

Abstract: The poem “The Fall” by Jeffrey Bilbro is presented. First Line: The fall is gone. The thick; Last Line: and light among us?

Hill, MatthewEvolution and Holiness: Sociobiology, Altruism and the Quest for Wesleyan Perfection. Westmont, IL: IVP Academic, 2016.

Evolution & HolinessTheology needs to engage what recent developments in the study of evolution mean for how we understand moral behavior. How does the theological concept of holiness connect to contemporary understandings of evolution? If genetic explanations of altruism fall short, what role should we give to environmental explanations and free will? Likewise, how do genetic explanations relate to theological accounts of human goodness and holiness? In this groundbreaking work, Matthew Hill uses the lens of Wesleyan ethics to offer a fresh assessment of the intersection of evolution and theology. He shows that what is at stake in this conversation is not only the future of the church but also the fine-tuning of human evolution.

Hawthorne, John W. “Christian Scholarship in the Twenty-First Century: Prospects and Perils/The Pietist Vision of Christian Higher Education: Forming Whole and Holy Persons.” Christian Scholar’s Review 45, no. 2 (2016): 187-191.

Abstract: Christian scholarship offers both positive and negative outcomes for the Christian scholar. […]it would have been helpful if the authors had been asked to address similar themes from their various perspectives. The editors had a substantive teleological aim: [I]f there are Christian approaches to the various academic disciplines, it might be that bj’ approaching them in these ways, we can better manifest the gospel, better image the manifold wisdom and beauty of God, better serve a suffering world.

Baker, Jack R. and Jeffrey Bilbro. “Putting Down Roots: Why Universities Need Gardens.” Christian Scholar’s Review 45, no. 2 (2016): 125-142.

Abstract: […]sources stated that the pathetic loafer has never had any interest in moving to even a nearby major city, despite the fact that he has nothing better to do than “sit around all day” being an involved member of his community and using his ample free time to follow pursuits that give him genuine pleasure. […]gardening can cultivate the gratitude that should characterize our posture as placed creatures.

Rinck, Jonathan, and Jonathan Garn. “Earth, Fire and Vegetable Oil.” Ceramics Technical no. 41 (November 2015): 84-87.

Abstract: The article presents ceramist Aaron Cole’s kiln that runs on waste vegetable oil and provides possibilities for an inexpensive firing process that is more affordable and sustainable than traditional firing methods. Topics discussed include Cole’s development of a kiln that recycles Spring Arbor University’s waste vegetable oil to use as fuel and the kiln’s capability of firing up to cone 8 with minimal sources of propane and gasoline thus offering a free alternative to more traditional fuels.

Rinck, Jonathan. “Pewabic pottery: Still glazing after all these years.” Ceramics Technical 41 (2015): 112.

Abstract: The article presents Pewabic Pottery established by Mary Chase Perry-Stratton who modelled and fired her first clay pot when she was only 5 years old but took pottery seriously in her 30s. Pewabic Potter is characterized by its emphatically handmade appearance as Perry-Straton wanted her work to retain a human touch. The pottery continues to operate at present, filling large commissions like the work for The Detroit Zoo and Chicago’s Shed Aquarium.

Letherer, JenRemote Virtue: A Christian Guide to Intentional Media Viewing. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2015.

Remote VirtueTelevision and movies shape popular culture, with audiences often unaware of how media messages influence the way they think, act, and view the world. In this enlightening guide, author Jen Letherer interprets film and television shows from a Christian standpoint, revealing how beliefs and values portrayed on the big and small screens often impact the moral conduct of daily viewers. This book provides the tools for Christians to discern the implicit and explicit messages found within this medium, and shows how motion pictures can improve or erode religious principles and a spiritual way of life.

In a conversational tone, the work combines classic film theory, an assessment of story structure, and faith-based film criticism to delve into meaning and interpretations of popular movies and shows. Highlighted television programs include Top Chef, Modern Family, Downton Abbey, and The Walking Dead. The book also features films like Citizen Kane, Thelma and Louise, Star Wars, Inception, and The Hunger Games. This fascinating critique prompts media consumers to analyze the messages that their favorite broadcast programs send, consider if those messages are in line with their own values, and align their viewing choices with their personal beliefs.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “Thomas Berry: Selected Writings on the Earth Community/The Intellectual Journey of Thomas Berry: Imagining the Earth Community.” ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies In Literature & Environment 22, no. 4 (September 2015): 909-911.

Abstract: This article reviews the books, “Thomas Berry: Selected Writings on the Earth Community” by Mary Evelyn Tucker  & John Grim, and “The Intellectual Journey of Thomas Berry: Imagining the Earth Community” edited by Heather Eaton.

Rinck, Jonathan. “Matthias Alten in Michigan.” Michigan History Magazine 99, no. 5 (September/October 2015): 32-37.

Abstract: The flickering, impressionistic brushstrokes and colors of Mathias Alten’s paintings — some 2,500 in number — were much admired in their time. He traveled and painted across Europe, finding particular inspiration on Spain’s Mediterranean coast. But the artist resisted the enticing allure of living on the continent, as so many other American painters of the early 20th century did. After all his journey’s abroad, he unfailingly returned home to Michigan, the inspiration for his finest paintings.

Correll, Mark R. “The reformation of suffering: pastoral theology and lay piety in late medieval and early modern Germany.” Fides Et Historia 47, no. 2 (September 2015): 184-186.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “The reformation of suffering: pastoral theology and lay piety in late medieval and early modern Germany” by Ronald K.Rittgers.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “Teaching Thoreau in China: Waldensian Reflections on Chinese Ecology and Agriculture.” Journal of Ecocriticism 7, no. 1 (2015): 1-20.

Abstract: It may seem quixotic to teach Walden, the archetypal American ode to self-reliance and wildness, in Wuhan, one of China’s largest industrial cities. Nevertheless, I was excited when I found out I would have the opportunity to give a series of lectures on Thoreau at Wuhan University of Technology, the third largest university in China. This would give me the chance to discuss pressing ecological and cultural issues in the context of one of the most rapidly industrializing countries in the world. China’s environmental problems are widely reported, and if China can’t find a way to develop its vast economy more sustainably, then the entire world will suffer the consequences. Through this opportunity, Thoreau provided me with a helpful perspective from which to understand China’s ecological, agricultural, and political situation.
Thoreau attempts repeatedly to reconcile the train that ran next to Walden Pond with his pastoral life, but the industrial and pastoral remained stubbornly at odds. This opposition describes modern China pretty well also, and their railroad system is a profound example of their rapid industrialization. Yet at the same time that China is building high-speed rail, erecting new high-rises, and coping with smog, much of the country continues to be farmed by peasants using traditional methods.
For Thoreau, the countryside acts as a site for political resistance; he can move out to Walden Pond, establish a life apart from an oppressive, slaveholding government, and consider how to participate in a more just economy and culture. Such a tradition of protest and civil disobedience has been largely tamped down in China. As long as the government delivers basic services, most citizens are content to mind their own affairs; those who speak out just bring trouble on themselves and their families. One Chinese poet who was inspired by Thoreau, Hai Zi, wrote poetry protesting industrialization and the destruction of the countryside, but he eventually lost hope and committed suicide by lying down on the railroad tracks, a copy of Walden tucked into his bag.
Yet at the end of Walden, Thoreau has an experience which gives him renewed hope for the railroad and his culture, a hope that may also be imaginable in China. Thoreau sees the sun melting frozen sand on the bank of the railroad grade and creating new patterns; he sees nature at work in the midst of industry. I’m never quite sure how to read this conclusion. Is Thoreau right to realize that human culture is part of nature also, or is he naive in thinking that human development can’t ultimately destroy natural life? Is he right that our imagination is what most needs to change? Teaching Thoreau in Wuhan, to people living in one of the most rapidly industrializing civilizations in the history of the world, gave me new hope that Thoreau’s conclusion, with its focus on imaginative and perceptual change, is right. Perhaps the core problem is not industrialization or the train itself, but the warped human imaginations that use these tools to damage the earth. And literature might play a role in renewing our imaginations, in helping all of us desire and work toward lives of contentment and wild harmony. As Hai Zi writes, “I hope that in this dusty world you become content / I only hope to face the ocean, as spring warms and flowers open.”

Widstrom, Laura.The Relational Pastor: Sharing in Christ by Sharing Ourselves.” Journal Of Youth Ministry 13, no. 2 (Spring 2015): 157-158.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “The Relational Pastor: Sharing in Christ by Sharing Ourselves” by Andrew Root.

Rinck, Jonathan. City of Ladies.” Sixteenth Century Journal 46, no. 1 (Spring 2015): 205-207.

No abstract is available.

Bilbro, JeffreyLoving God’s Wildness: The Christian Roots of Ecological Ethics in American Literature. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2015.

Jogging with ChestertonWhen the Puritans arrived in the New World to carry out the colonization they saw as divinely mandated, they were confronted by the American wilderness. Part of their theology led them to view the natural environment as “a temple of God” in which they should glorify and serve its creator. The larger prevailing theological view, however, saw this vast continent as “the Devil’s Territories” needing to be conquered and cultivated for God’s Kingdom. These contradictory designations gave rise to an ambivalence regarding the character of this land and humanity’s proper relation to it.

Loving God’s Wildness rediscovers the environmental roots of America’s Puritan heritage. In tracing this history, Jeffrey Bilbro demonstrates how the dualistic Christianity that the Puritans brought to America led them to see the land as an empty wilderness that God would turn into a productive source of marketable commodities. Bilbro carefully explores the effect of this dichotomy in the nature writings of Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, Willa Cather, and Wendell Berry.

Thoreau, Muir, Cather, and Berry imaginatively developed the Puritan theological tradition to propose practical, physical means by which humans should live and worship within the natural temple of God’s creation. They reshaped Puritan dualism, each according to the particular needs of his or her own ecological and cultural contexts, into a theology that demands care for the entire created community. While differing in their approaches and respective ecological ethics, the four authors Bilbro examines all share the conviction that God remains active in creation and that humans ought to relinquish their selfish ends to participate in his wild ecology.

Loving God’s Wildness fills a critical gap in literary criticism and environmental studies by offering a sustained, detailed argument regarding how Christian theology has had a profound and enduring legacy in shaping the contours of the American ecological imagination. Literary critics, scholars of religion and environmental studies, and thoughtful Christians who are concerned about environmental issues will profit from this engaging new book.

Edwards, Mark T. “Cold War Transgressions: Christian Realism, Conservative Socialism, and the Longer 1960s.” Religions 6, no. 1 (2015): 266-285.  doi:10.3390/rel6010266

Abstract: This essay examines the convergence of the Protestant left and traditionalist right during the 1950s. Reinhold Niebuhr and the World Council of Churches challenged Cold War liberalism from within. As they did, they anticipated and even applauded the anti-liberalism of early Cold War conservatives. While exploring intellectual precursors of the New Left, this essay forefronts one forgotten byproduct of the political realignments following World War II: The transgressive politics of “conservative socialism.” Furthermore, this work contributes to growing awareness of ecumenical Christian impact within American life.

James, Amy and  Bolton, Robbie. “Hanging Out with Google” In  The Complete Guide to Using Google in Libraries: Instruction, Administration, and Staff Productivityedited by Carol Smallwood, 65-72. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.

Transformative Curriculum Design and Program Development: Creating Effective Adult Learning by Leveraging Psychological Capital and Self-Directedness through the Exercise of Human AgencyIn 2011, Google gave up yet another failed attempt at building a social network, replacing Google Buzz with Google+. Google has had a healthy list of failed forays into the social network market (McCracken 2014). Even though the reviews of Google+ have been mixed, at best, it has survived for three years now. Google+ claims a half billion active monthly users but most estimate the number to be closer to half that (Miller 2014). With more than a billion active monthly users, Google+ is not much of a threat to Facebook’s dominance in the social media market (Ha 2014). However, some have speculated that challenging the social media market is not Google’s endgame (Miller 2014). The merits of Google+ can be debated, but the brightest star of all the features is its video conferencing tool, Google Hangouts.

Bolton, Robbie. “Mercy in the City: How to Feed the Hungry, Give Drink to the Thirsty, Visit the Imprisoned, and Keep Your Day Job.” Catholic Library World 85, no. 2 (December 2014): 120.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “Mercy in the City: How to Feed the Hungry, Give Drink to the Thirsty, Visit the Imprisoned, and Keep Your Day Job” by Kerry Weber.

Correll, Mark.Mark Hewitson, Nationalism in Germany, 1848–1866: Revolutionary Nation.” European History Quarterly 44, no. 4 (October 2014): 734.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “Nationalism in Germany, 1848–1866: Revolutionary Nation” by Mark Hewitson.

Foster, Nathan. The Making of an Ordinary Saint: My Journey from Frustration to Joy with the Spiritual Disciplines. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2014.

The Making of an Ordinary SaintMore than thirty years after his father’s classic book brought them to the masses, Nathan Foster took his own unique path into the spiritual disciplines. As he sought day by day to develop habits that would enable him to live more like Jesus, he encountered problems both universal and personal. Along the way, he found creative new ways to practice the disciplines and discovered that a vital, conversational relationship with God was truly within his grasp.

Now he invites you to join him on the journey. You may just find that holy habits are truly possible for all.

James, Amy. “The Islands of Chaldea.” Catholic Library World 85, no. 1 (September 2014): 69.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “The Islands of Chaldea” by Diana Jones and Ursula Jones.

Correll, Mark R. “The Iron Princess: Amalia Elisabeth and the Thirty Years War.” Fides Et Historia 46, no. 2 (September 2014): 118-119.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “The Iron Princess: Amalia Elisabeth and the Thirty Years War” by Tryntje Helfferich.

Edwards, Mark. “Can Christianity Save Civilisation?: Liberal Protestant Anti-Secularism in Interwar America.” Journal of Religious History. Advance online publication (2014). doi: 10.1111/1467-9809.12126

Abstract: This article explores the geopolitics of liberal evangelicalism, Christian Realism, and the ecumenical movement as collective responses to the rise of “secularism” after World War I. Alternatively, it considers how liberal Protestants looked to Roman Catholicism for support in their defence of the Christian identity of the United States and the West more generally. The long history of Christian anti-secularism in America complicates familiar portraits of liberal Protestants as agents of secularisation.

Baker, Jack R.Review Anonymous Interpolations in Ælfric’s Lives of Saints by Robin Norris.” The Journal of English and Germanic Philology 113, no. 3 (July 21, 2014): 391–93. doi:10.5406/jenglgermphil.113.3.0391

Abstract: The article reviews “Anonymous Interpolations in Ælfric’s Lives of Saints” by Robin Norris.

J. Cameron Moore. “Outward Seeming: Lancelot’s Prayer and the Healing of Sir Urry in Malory’s Morte Darthur.”Arthuriana 24, no. 2 (2014): 3-20. doi: 10.1353/art.2014.0019

Abstract: Lancelot’s reaction to prayer in the Sir Urry episode of the Morte Darthur differs from his other responses to efficacious prayer, revealing the disjunction between his inward spiritual state and his outward appearance as the greatest knight in the world.

James, Amy. “Last-But-Not-Least Lola Going Green.” Catholic Library World 84, no. 4 (June 2014): 291-292.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “Last-But-Not-Least Lola Going Green” by Christine Pakkala and illustrated by Paul Hoppe.

Edwards, Mark. “The Urban Pulpit: New York City and the Fate of Liberal Evangelicalism.” Christian Century 131, no. 12 (June 2014): 37-38.

Abstract: Review of The Urban Pulpit: New York City & the Fate of Liberal Evangelicalism by Matthew Bowman.

Moore-Jumonville, Robert, Dale Ahlquist, and Brian Shaw (Illustrator). Jogging with G.K. Chesterton: 65 Earthshaking Expeditions. Cheshire, CT: Winged Lion Press, 2014.

Jogging with ChestertonImagine having the brilliant journalist and prolific Christian author G.K. Chesterton as your daily jogging partner. This is precisely what Robert Moore-Jumonville did for over twelve years – he read LOTS of Chesterton’s books and, during his daily jogging routine, reflected on them. The resulting essays appeared in Gilbert magazine, the monthly publication of the American G.K. Chesterton Society. JOGGING WITH G.K. CHESTERTON is a showcase for the merry mind of Chesterton. But Chesterton’s lighthearted wit always runs side-by-side with his weighty wisdom. These 65 “earthshaking expeditions” will keep you smiling and thinking from start to finish. You’ll be entertained, challenged, and spiritually uplifted as you take time to breathe the crisp morning air and contemplate the wonders of the world. “This is a delightfully improbable book in which Chesterton puts us through our spiritual and intellectual exercises with mind-jogging and body-jiggling brilliance. It will leave you breathless with the exhilaration and exhaustion of the Chestertonian chase.” Joseph Pearce Author of Wisdom and Innocence: A Life of G.K. Chesterton “G.K. Chesterton is one of the giants of the Christian intellectual tradition. If you want to learn about him, or learn more than you now know, I heartily recommend JOGGING WITH G.K. CHESTERTON. It will delight, entertain, instruct and challenge you.” Richard J. Foster Author Celebration of Discipline and Sanctuary of the Soul Robert Moore-Jumonville is Professor of Christian Spirituality at Spring Arbor University in Michigan and the pastor of Pope United Methodist Church. He is the author of Hermeneutics of Historical Distance and co-authored (with Thom Slatterlee) two books of selected readings from G.K. Chesterton.

Rinck, Jonathan. “The Altarpiece: A Novel.” Sixteenth Century Journal 45, no. 1 (Spring 2014): 213-215.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “The Altarpiece: a Novel” by Sarah Kennedy.

Correll, Mark RShepherds of the Empire: Germany’s Conservative Protestant Leadership–1888-1919. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2014.

Shepherds of the EmpireThe late nineteenth century was a time of rapid industrialization, mass politicization, and modern philosophy. The resulting political and cultural upheaval confronted the German protestant church with deep questions of identity. On the one side sat an educated academic guild whose explorations of history, philology, and emerging social scientific disciplines gave rise to serious questions about the Christian faith and its meaning for today. On the other sat parish clergy faced with the complexities of daily life and leadership in common communities. For these parish clergy the pressure was great to support and bolster people not only in their life as Christians, but in their life as Germans.

Shepherds of the Empire engages timeless questions of identity and faith through the time-bound work of four key thinkers who attempted, and ultimately failed, to carve a middle way for the German parish clergy in that environment.

Robinson, Gregory. “The Acts of King Arthur and His Noble Knights: A Call for Reappraisal.” Steinbeck Review 11, no. 1 (March 2014): 46.

Abstract: John Steinbeck had an ambitious lifelong desire to recast the Arthurian chronicles into a modern version of the epic legends. In fact, “John Steinbeck spent months of his life in England exploring Arthurian locations and living in a medieval cottage in Sommerset rewriting Malory with a biro refill stuck into a goose quill” (Hardyment 10). A significant portion of what he accomplished survives as The Acts of King Arthur and His Noble Knights (1976). The book remains almost universally disparaged by the establishment in academe, both medievalist and Steinbeckian. In my opinion, these judgments are wrong. Steinbeck’s 293-page adaptation stands as a noble literary attempt worthy of accolades, since his narrative perfectly satisfies the medieval Arthurian romance traditions and Steinbeck’s own perceptions of contemporary literature with evocative character relationships and courtly interactions—universally adapted for the interests of a new generation. The Acts conveys the distinctive impression of a medieval saga written with a long-established literary voice, but now in Steinbeck’s modern prose.

Hawthorne, John WA First Step into a Much Larger World: The Christian University and Beyond. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2014.

A First StepHow do Christian students approach their years at a Christian college or university? What are the connections between all those hours of study and the Christian life? A FIRST STEP INTO A MUCH LARGER WORLD invites students, parents, and educators into a broad conversation about faith and learning in a postmodern age. Students will explore how to respond to diversity while maintaining community, how to make learning sensible as an expression of faith, and how to move from passive recipients of education to active and engaged co-learners with others. In so doing, they can transform their undergraduate years into a springboard for engaging the culture beyond the university.

Woods, Robert  and Kevin Healy, eds. Prophetic Critique and Popular Media: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Applications, New York: Peter Lang , 2013.

Prophetic CritiqueThis book positions the «prophetic» as an organizing concept that can bridge religious and secular criticism of popular media. Drawing from philosophical ethics and moral psychology, the book argues that prophetic critique engages a complex set of universal human capabilities. Whether religious or secular in origin, prophetic critique requires developmentally complex modes of critical reflection, imagination, empathy, and communication. Although this book is diverse in perspective, each author seeks to expose how the content, institutions, and technologies of popular media alternately support – or undermine – the basic values of equality, human dignity, and social justice. By foregrounding such universal principles, the authors distinguish their arguments from critical/cultural scholarship that fails to acknowledge its own normative foundations and implicit theology of culture. The authors demonstrate the efficacy of this framework by applying it to specific case studies in popular media including theater, film, music, journalism, and digital culture. The book argues that the prophetic critique of mass media is essential to maintaining a productive tension between religious communities and the institutions of secular democracy. More broadly, in outlining an inclusive understanding of prophetic critique, this book builds bridges between religious and secular scholarship and generates a unique vision for a revitalized, mass-mediated public sphere.

Patton, Paul. “The Prophetic Imagination and Passion of David Mamet.” In Prophetic Critique and Popular Media: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Applications, edited by Robert Woods and Kevin Healy. New York: Peter Lang , 2013.

Prophetic CritiqueLong after playwright and filmmaker David Mamet had left the home of his mother and stepfather, his younger sister sat down at the family table for dinner just before leaving to perform as lead in her high school play. Pre-occupied with the jitters and joys that accompany opening nights, Lynn just picked at her food. Her mother asserted that since she had cooked the food, it had to be eaten and insisted that no one would be excused until the meal was consumed. Upon seeing her orders were not followed, her mother called the school, asking for the drama teacher, and then informed the director that her daughter would not be able to attend the opening night performance. No, Lynn was not sick; she had not finished her vegetables.

McGadney, Brenda F. “Benjamin Hooks.” In Encyclopedia of Social Work, edited by Cynthia Franklin. Oxford University Press, November 2013. 10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.013.1091.

Abstract: Benjamin L. Hooks (1925–2010) was best known as an African American civil rights leader, lawyer, Baptist minister, gifted orator, and a businessman (co-founder of a bank and chicken fast-food franchises), who was executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (1977–1992). Hooks was appointed by President Richard Nixon as one of five commissioners (first African American) of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1972, commencing in 1973 with confirmation by the Senate.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “The Form of the Cross: Milton’s Chiastic Soteriology.” Milton Quarterly 47, no. 3 (2013): 127-148. doi: 10.1111/milt.12043

Abstract: While Milton’s mastery of rhetorical figures has long been admired and discussed (see Pallister, Wood, Broadbent, and George Smith), scant attention has been given to his use of chiasmus. Understanding how Milton employs this figure can illuminate his ideas about the Crucifixion. In turn, recognizing the medieval and Renaissance association between the event of the Crucifixion and the crossing structure of chiasmus can lead to a reassessment of the role the Crucifixion plays in Milton’s soteriology and a new appreciation for the vital connection between Milton’s poetics and his theology. In essence, the inverted shape of chiasmus enables Milton to enact the Son’s overturning work of redemption on the cross, and the contrasts drawn by the repetitions produced by this rhetorical figure depict the way this redemption reconciles seeming opposites.

White, Charles Edward. “Charles Wesley and the Making of the English Working Class.” Journal of Markets and Morality 16, no. 2 (2013): 603-614.

Although their workload varied from place to place and from time to time, Europeans in the Middle Ages worked roughly two-thirds of the year, with about 80 full days and 70 partial days off. The leading theologian before the Reformation, Thomas Aquinas, had taught them that work, while not a curse, was a necessary evil to be avoided when possible. When not faced with hunger, often they did avoid it. Max Weber twice cites seventeenth-century Dutch economist Pieter de la Court saying that people only work because, and so long as, they are poor.8 How could workers such as these be induced to work long hours more than 300 days a year in the factories of the industrial revolution? They sang the hymns of Charles Wesley.

Widstrom, Laura. “Shaping the Journey of Emerging Adults.” Journal Of Youth Ministry 12, no. 1 (Fall 2013): 134-136.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Shaping the Journey of Emerging Adults: Life-Giving Rhythms for Spiritual Transformation” edited by Richard R. Dunn and Jana L. Sundene.

Edwards, Mark. “Evangelical Catholicism: The Past, Present, and Future of Christian Reunion.” Historically Speaking 14, no. 4 (2013): 26–27.

Abstract: In 1933 Francis Pickens Miller announced that a “third great period” of Christian history was at hand. In this new epoch, he predicted, Protestants and Catholics would “pool spiritual resources” and become “united in one community.” That might seem a surprising claim coming from a lifelong southern Presbyterian. But Miller made that statement while serving as chairman of the World Student Christian Federation (WSCF), an interdenominational ecumenical movement whose implicit mission was to replicate and ultimately replace Catholicism’s planetary presence. For Miller, the geopolitical times now demanded that Rome and Geneva repent of their historic habits. Vatican centralism and Protestant individualism had both become hindrances to the advance of a world Christian civilization. Each had to give way to the formation of a new borderless Christendom. It would still take thirty more years and the reforms of Vatican II for Miller to see his way fully toward the reunion of Christianity’s classical combatants. “If John XXIII’s goals can continue to be realized,” Miller concluded in his 1971 autobiography, “the Roman church will resume its traditional leadership of Christendom and the Church Universal which will then emerge—including the Roman, Orthodox, and Protestant traditions—will constitute the best hope of mankind.”

Miller’s remarkable confessions were manifestations of “Evangelical Catholicism.” Because of historians’ relative inattention to Protestants of Miller’s liberal, ecumenical persuasion, Evangelical Catholicism is being touted today as the wave of the future. In the past few years, there has been an explosion of websites dedicated to discussing and tracking the Evangelical Catholic crusade from within Catholicism. Perhaps nothing is bringing more attention to the trend than George Weigel’s Evangelical Catholicism: Deep Reform in the 21st-Century Church (Basic Books, 2013). Conservative evangelicals, one of Weigel’s non-Catholic constituencies, have a strong recent history of interest in Catholic theology and practice. Although Evangelicals and Catholics Together lost momentum after its 1994 declaration, signatories have continued to champion evangelical-Catholic cooperation into the new century—including Weigel, the late Richard John Neuhaus and Charles Colson, and those affiliated with the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. Leading evangelical and Catholic conservatives remain partners in defense of nuclear family values, while younger Catholics and evangelicals appear more and more comfortable trading spaces out of a common quest for authentic, non-politicized faith.

McVay, Lori AnnRural women in leadership: positive factors in leadership development. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI, 2013.

The Making of an Ordinary SaintRural women and leadership have, in recent years, come to be the focus of development initiatives in many countries. To date, however, much of the writing on this topic has leaned more heavily on structure than agency as influencing attainment of leadership. Citing examples from a case study in Northern Ireland, this book gives agency an equal voice to structure, and pursues both as vital, positive elements in leadership development.

Wood, Naaman. “Uncle Toms, Massas, and Symbolic Violence: Miles Davis’s Rhetoric of Moral Reconstitution.” Jazz Perspectives 7, no. 1 (2013): 57–75. doi:10.1080/17494060.2013.824645

Abstract: Extending Albert Murray’s presupposition that “performing artists are rhetoricians,” this study applies a rhetorical approach to Miles: the Autobiography. Davis’s rhetoric of moral reconstitutionutilizes the classical means of persuasion—ethospathos, and logos—within the epideictic, or ceremonial, genre. As such, Davis focuses his logos of invection on the Uncle Tom insult, where he displays his own, and incites in others, a pathos of insolence. Davis used these discourses to first, explain norms and introduce instability in the jazz community; second, create moral distance from particular figures and elevate himself; and finally, reconstitute the true jazz community around his own ethos of detachment. Based on Christopher Small’s notion of musicking and Phillip Bohlman’s ontological argument of “music as process,” this rhetorical approach extends Murray’s “all performers are rhetoricians” presupposition suggesting, first, that jazz performers can use their musical performances as social criticism and social idealization. And second, the jazz community’s use of logos reveals that musical performances are sites of ongoing struggle over the community’s identity and values. Furthermore, Davis’ rhetoric of moral reconstitution confirms that Miles: the Autobiography is a morally obsessed document but one that condones violent authoritarian rather than dialogic rhetorical strategies. These extensions suggest that jazz is a phenomenon where a rhetorical invention plays a pivotal role and where a rhetorical approach can offer productive insights for further research.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “The Achievement of Wendell Berry: The Hard History of Love.” Christianity & Literature 62, no. 3 (Spring 2013): 466-469.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “The Achievement of Wendell Berry: The Hard History of Love” by Fritz Oehlschlaeger.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “Lahiri’s Hawthornian Roots: Art and Tradition in “Hema and Kaushik”.” Critique 54, no. 4 (September 2013): 380-394.

Abstract: Hawthorne explores—in “The House of Seven Gables” and particularly “The Marble Faun”—how some artistic methods attempt to fix the past and escape tradition’s grip while others participate in the reformation and revitalization of tradition. Lahiri draws on Hawthorne’s ideas and characters as she probes—in “Hema and Kaushik” and especially its final story, “Going Ashore”—how one’s relation to the past affects and even determines one’s ability to live out a hybrid, postnational identity.

Widstrom, Laura. “Religious values and the development of trait hope and self-esteem in adolescents.” Journal Of Youth Ministry 12, no. 1 (Fall 2013): 109-112.

Abstract: The article discusses the research which examines the relationships between religious values, self-esteem and trait hope among teenagers. The study involved 640 adolescents from five different Catholic secondary schools. It states that the presence of hope in the lives of these teenagers did not predict the presence of religious values. Also discussed is the significance of the Holy Spirit as the ultimate agent of transformation.

Cline, Brent Walter. “Great Clumsy Dinosaurs: The Disabled Body in the Posthuman World.”  In Disability in Science Fiction: Representations of Technology as Cure, edited by Kathryn Allan, 131-143. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Great Clumsy DinosaursIn science fiction, technology often modifies, supports, and attempts to ‘make normal’ the disabled body. In this groundbreaking collection, twelve international scholars — with backgrounds in disability studies, English and world literature, classics, and history — discuss the representation of dis/ability, medical ‘cures,’ technology, and the body in science fiction. Bringing together the fields of disability studies and science fiction, this book explores the ways dis/abled bodies use prosthetics to challenge common ideas about ability and human being, as well as proposes new understandings of what ‘technology as cure’ means for people with disabilities in a (post)human future.

King, David and Kay Hodges. “Outcomes-Driven Clinical Management and Supervisory Practices with Youth with Severe Emotional Disturbance.” Administration in Social Work 37, no. 3 (2013): 312-324. doi:

Abstract: Data-informed and outcomes-oriented administrative practices are critical for achieving positive consumer results. This article describes a model for program managers and clinical supervisors that utilized a proactive, strengths-based approach, which was supported by a “real-time” outcome management system. Key factors critical to implementing and sustaining data-driven practices are presented.


Rinck, Jonathan. “Portraits, Painters, and Publics in Provincial England, 1540-1640.” Sixteenth Century Journal 44, no. 2 (Summer 2013): 553-554.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Portraits, Painters, and Publics in Provincial England, 1540-1640,” by Robert Tittler.

McGadney, Brenda F. “Parks, Rosa.” In Encyclopedia of Social Work, edited by Cynthia Franklin. Oxford University Press, July 2013. doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.013.1119.

Abstract: Rosa Parks (1913–2005) was best known as an African American civil rights activist, who in 1955 refused to give up her seat to a White man on a Montgomery, Alabama, city bus, leading to conviction for civil disobedience and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The 112th U.S. Congress celebrated her 100th birthday as National Day of Courage with a resolution recognizing her as the “first lady of civil rights” and the “mother of freedom movement” and commemorates her “legacy to inspire all people of the United States to stand up for freedom and the principles of the Constitution.”

Edwards, Mark. “Moral Minority: The Evangelical Left in an Age of Conservatism.” Journal Of American History 100, no. 1 (June 2013): 267.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Mortal Minority: The Evangelical Left in an Age of Conservatism,” by David R. Swartz.

Correll, Mark R. “The Faustian Century: German Literature and Culture in the Age of Luther and Faustus.” Fides Et Historia45, no. 2 (Summer, 2013): 125-127.

Abstract: The Faustian Century uses the Faust legends to cast a vision of the sixteenth century from the perspective of a mature Lutheran hegemony at the century’s end rather than the more familiar viewpoint from the origins of the Protestant movement. These authors conceive that Lutheranism in power gave a stronger definition to the era than Luther in ascendency. The Faustian Century uses the Faust legend as a lens through which to see this troubled time of religious violence and legally enforced orthodoxy. While a historical Faust may have lived and worked in the first half of the sixteenth century, the popular vision of Faust that inspired Marlowe, Goethe, Mann, and others was initiated a half century later by various anonymous authors in the central Holy Roman Empire: “Historia vnd geschieht Doctor Johannis Faustj des Zauberers” (ca. 1572-1585), the expanded narrative Historia von D. Johann Fausten / dem weitbeschreyten Zauberer und Schwarzkünstler (1587), and the third but less important Faust narrative of 1599 by Georg Rudolf Widmann, D. Iohannes Faustus ein weitberuffener Schwarzkünstler vnd Ertzzäuberer (hereafter referred to collectively as the Eaustbuch).

Bolton, Robbie. “Google Hangouts.” Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association 34, no. 1 (2013): 39-40. doi: 10.5596/c13-002

Abstract: The article evaluates Google Hangouts, an application developed as an integrated tool in the Google+ social networking platform.

Rinck, Jonathan. “Pewabic Pottery Among the Peacocks: The Partnership of Charles Lang Freer and Mary Chase Perry-Stratton.” Ceramics: Art & Perception no. 91 (March 2013): 62-64.

Abstract: The peacock room is one of the most well-known products of the 19th century aesthetic movement, perhaps largely because of the story of its creation. American artist James McNeil Whistler painted the room in 1876-1877 which, at the time, belonged to the London home of Frederick Leyland. Although he was only supposed to retouch a botched paint job by a previous artist, Whistler famously gave the room a complete makeover while Leyland was away. Upon his return, Leyland was mortified and fired Whistler, but this did not stop the tenacious Whistler from returning and adding the now famous peacocks on the wall. In 1904, the room (and the Whistler paintings it contained) was acquired by Charles Freer and brought to the US, where it eventually became the centrepiece of the Freer Art Gallery. Freer purchased the room specifically to display his collection of Asian pottery. But Freer also used the room to display the ceramic pottery of Mary Chase Perry- Stratton (1867-1961). In fact, Perry-Stratton’s ceramics were the only works by a contemporary artist that Freer ever displayed in the room. Although the Peacock room is mostly associated with Whistler, Perry-Stratton’s ceramics once assumed a visibly robust presence in their own right.

Brewer, Kenneth W. “Rob Bell and John Wesley on the fate of the lost and those who never heard the Gospel.”Wesleyan Theological Journal 48, no. 1 (March 1, 2013): 117-134.

Abstract: Most theologians seek to ground their theology in Scripture. Often, a conflict in interpretation emerges. When this happens, both sides claim that it is there position that is supported by Scripture, while other interpretations are not warranted. And so, the exegetical battle ensures. Recently, Rob Bell critiqued the traditional view of hell and the fate of those who never heard the Christian gospel in his bestselling book, Love Wins. While admittedly not a sophisticated academic treatment, Bell charged that the gospel has been misread and that the biblical images of hell have been taken too literally. He seeks to revise the traditional story-line of the gospel by accenting the love of God, wondering how a God of love could torture people in hell forever. Bell is also disturbed by those who claim that only a few will be saved and by those who know that someone like Gandhi is doomed to an eternal hell without any possibility of redemption.

Woods, Robert H. ed. Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture: Pop Goes the Gospel. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2013.

Shepherds of the EmpireEvangelical Christians and Popular Culture: Pop Goes the Gospel addresses the full spectrum of evangelical media and popular culture offerings, even delving into lesser-known forms of evangelical popular culture such as comic books, video games, and theme parks. The chapters in this 3-volume work are written by over 50 authors who specialize in fields as diverse as history, theology, music, psychology, journalism, film and television studies, advertising, and public relations. Volume 1 examines film, radio and television, and the Internet; Volume 2 covers literature, music, popular art, and merchandise; and Volume 3 discusses public figures, popular press, places, and events. The work is intended for a scholarly audience but presents material in a student-friendly, accessible manner. Evangelical insiders will receive a fresh look at the wide variety of evangelical popular culture offerings, many of which will be unknown, while non-evangelical readers will benefit from a comprehensive introduction to the subject matter.

Rinck, Jonathan. “Maria Spilsbury (1776-1820): Artist and Evangelical.” CAA Reviews (March 22, 2012): 1.

Abstract: In her short biographical work Father and Daughter: Jonathan and Maria Spilsbury (London: Epworth, 1952), Ruth Young, a descendant of Maria Spilsbury (Spilsbury-Taylor, after her marriage in 1808), recounts a delightful anecdote in which the future KingGeorge IV visited Spilsbury’s studio on St. George’s Row, London. Impatient with how slowly work was progressing on his commission which, to his judgment, seemed complete, he exclaimed, “Really, Mrs. Taylor, I swear that you can do no more to that! You’ve finished it and a damned good picture it is.” Unconvinced, Spilsbury sought a second opinion from her maid. Upon close inspection, the maid astutely pointed out that, distressingly, the woman sewing in the painting still lacked a thimble. At this, the exasperated prince, Young writes, chased the maid out of the room, “her cap-strings flying” (32). Any other artist might have obligingly yielded to the prince, but such was Spilsbury’s notoriety that visits from the Prince Regent, her chief patron, were merely commonplace.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “The Ecological Thought.(Book Review).” Christianity and Literature no. 4 (2012): 693.

Abstract: In his latest book, Timothy Morton provides those scholars who are interested in the growing field of ecocriticism but not sure what all the fuss is about with a provocative, accessible introduction to the radical implications and intriguing possibilities that ecology offers for cultural theory. Those looking for literary analysis or an overview ofthe current state of environmental literary theory should turn elsewhere—starting with Lawrence Bueil’s excellent, if now slightly dated. The Future of Environmental Criticism: Environmental Crisis and Literary Imagination (2005). In The Ecological Thought, Morton leaves behind the close textual analysis, high-level theory, and, thankfully, the impenetrable prose, of his previous book. Ecology without Nature: Rethinking Environmental Aesthetics (2007). Instead, he offers a series of probing thought experiments and far-reaching cultural and theoretical analyses that explore ecology’s cultural implications. Morton’s style embodies the provocative irony that he argues the ecological thought demands as he takes on the role of “the irritating Columbo-style guy at the back of the room, the one who asks the unanswerable question” (115). So while many of Morton’s answers suggest that his conception of :he ecological thought is not as radical as he thinks it is, or as it perhaps should be, his questions challenge scholars in the liberal arts to wrestle with the consequences of ecology’s recent scientific discoveries.

Rinck, Jonathan. “Altered and Adorned: Using Renaissance Prints in Daily Life.” Sixteenth Century Journal 43, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 933-935.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Altered and Adorned: Using Renaissance Prints in Daily Life,” by Suzanne Karr Schmidt and Kimberly Nichols.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “Who Are Lost and How They’re Found: Redemption and Theodicy in Wheatley, Newton, and Cowper.” Early American Literature 47, no. 3 (2012): 561–589. doi:10.1353/eal.2012.0054.

Abstract: The article critiques poems which focus on the themes of redemption, theodicy and the African American slave trade, including the poem “On the Death of the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield,” by Phillis Wheatley, “Olney Hymns,” by John Newton and “Charity,” by William Cowper. The relationship between the poetry of Newton, Wheatley and Cowper and the abolition movement is discussed.

Cline, Brent Walter. “‘ You’re Not the Same Kind of Human Being’: The Evolution of Pity to Horror in Daniel Keyes’ Flowers for Algernon.” Disability Studies Quarterly 32, no. 4 (2012).

Abstract: Of American novels that engage with the topic of mental disability, few are more popular than Daniel Keyes’s Flowers for Algernon. Such popularity seems based on a simplistic reading of the novel where the mentally disabled are objects of good-natured compassion. A more thorough reading of how Charlie Gordon is presented, however, leads to the conclusion that mental disability is the embodiment of death in the novel. Readers are first taught to pity the pre-operative Charlie, but once they come to respond to the ethical voice of the post-operative Charlie, his regression to his original state becomes the rhetorical villain in the novel. At first an object of pity, the mentally disabled Charlie Gordon eventually becomes the metaphorical horror of oblivion that no character has the power to overcome.

Morgan, Tanja N., Cheryl A. HamptonShanise DavenportEllen YoungDiane M. Badzinski, Kathy Brittain Richardson, and Robert H. Woods. “Sacred Symbols with a Secular Beat? A Content Analysis of Religious and Sexual Imagery in Modern Rock, Hip Hop, Christian, and Country Music Videos.” Journal of Religion and Popular Culture 24, no. 3 (Fall, 2012): 432-448.

Abstract: A content analysis of music videos for the 2008 top-rated songs in four musical genres was conducted in order to gauge change in the presence of religious and sexual symbols since the mid-1990s and to determine if sexual and religious images were prevalent in the increasingly popular hip hop genre. Religious images appeared in about one-third of videos across genres, and sexual images appeared in more than half the videos and in all of the hip hop videos. Hip hop and country videos had the highest co-occurrences of religious and sexual imagery, although there was co-occurrence in each genre. The significance and possible interpretations of the symbols and their co-occurrence are discussed.

Bolton, Robbie. “Thrift Store Saints: Meeting Jesus 25 Cents at a Time.” Christian Librarian 55, no. 1 (July 2012): 36.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “Thrift Store Saints: Meeting Jesus 25 Cents at a Time” by Jane Knuth.

Edwards, Mark ThomasThe Right of the Protestant Left: God’s Totalitarianism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Book CoverThe Right of the Protestant Left explores the centrality of religious realignment for the development of American and global politics through the story of the ‘Christian Realists’ who led the American Protestant left after World War I. As a public theological community with transnational ties, the Realists attacked modern civilization, preached participatory democratic relations, and called for an ecumenical world Protestantism. Ultimately, in religion as well as in politics, the Realists and their associates at home and abroad proved to be the authentic religious right of their era. This valuable study thus highlights the conservative strain latent within twentieth-century American liberalism.

Bilbro, Jeffrey. “Preserving “God’s Wildness” for Redemptive Baptism.” Christianity & Literature 61, no. 4 (Summer 2012): 587-622.

Abstract: An essay is presented which focuses on the belief of John Muir, member of the Disciples of Christ, in immersing himself in the Sierra by partaking in its divine natural redemption. It says that Muir preached the “gospel of glaciers” to bring people to the wild baptism where they would be cleansed by divine love. It mentions the letter written by Muir to his friend, Jeanne Carr, on the fall of man and the wonders of Redeeming Love.

Woods, Robert H., Diane M. Badzinski, Janie M. Harden Fritz, and Sarah E. Yeates. “The ‘Ideal Professor’ and Gender Effects in Christian Higher Education.” Christian Higher Education 11, no. 3 (July 2012): 158–176.

Abstract: A survey was administered to 451 undergraduate students at a private liberal arts Christian university to identify students’ perceptions of the ideal professor. The survey revealed that the ideal professor places great emphasis on the integration of faith and learning, is flexible (and even easy), maintains high academic standards, encourages students, and has an adaptive teaching style. Findings also highlighted gender differences in student perception of the ideal professor. Women perceived an adaptable teaching style, encouragement, and integration of faith and learning as slightly more important than men did in defining the characteristics of an ideal professor. Implications are framed in terms of student expectations for content and relationship dimensions of learning associated with Christian colleges and universities.

Widstrom, Laura. “The Adolescent Journey.” Journal Of Youth Ministry 10, no. 2 (Spring 2012): 133-135.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “The Adolescent Journey,” by Amy E. Jacober.

Bunyan, John. The Holy War: Annotated Companion to the Pilgrim’s Progress. Edited by Daniel V. Runyon. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2012.

Holy WarFour years after John Bunyan released his instantly popular journey allegory The Pilgrim’s Progress, he published The Holy War—a battle allegory and companion volume. His first book explores salvation of the individual Christian; the second portrays the battle for sanctification. While Christian struggles with questions about assurance of salvation, the collective Mansoul labors with the challenges of being led by and filled with the Holy Spirit. The Pilgrim’s Progress focuses on the individual’s struggle against sin; The Holy War portrays the Church in a corporate struggle against systemic evil. Bunyan wrote that The Holy War originates in “the same heart, and head, fingers and pen” as The Pilgrim’s Progress. Both books present separate dimensions of Bunyan’s spiritual journey.

Taken together, the journey allegory and the battle allegory capture the full range and depth of the biblical message that consumed Bunyan’s imagination. He credits his own salvation to these two things: The grace of God and tenacious, continual, holy warfare. The Holy War is testimony to a spiritual battle he fought, and won. This edition provides annotations that clarify Bunyan’s first edition language and message for readers in a post-Puritan world.

Correll, Mark R. “The Reformation of Feeling: Shaping the Religious Emotions in Early Modern Germany.” Fides et Historia 43, no. 1 (December 1, 2011): 73–75.

Abstract: In a well-written study, The Reformation of Feeling: Shaping the Religious Emotions in Early Modern Germany, Susan C. Karant-Nunn has introduced a new lens by which to study the Reformations. Karant-Nunn takes a broad range of published sermons from pre-and post-Tridentine Catholics, as well as both Lutheran and Reformed Protestants, and reads them for their affective language. In doing this, she confirms and deepens many other historical interpretations of the Reformation era.

Correll, Mark R. “A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy.” Fides et Historia 43, no. 1 (December 1, 2011): 81–84.

Abstract: The Enlightenment has fallen on hard times as an ideological force for change in history. When it is not simply ignored in the developments of early modern Europe, it is described as a product of social forces. In this sharply written essay, A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy, Jonathan Israel sets out an ambitious project to restore the Enlightenment as the central focus for the entire historiography of the eighteenth century and the French Revolution. This work functions as an introduction to his much larger three volume set published by the Oxford University Press. This book is meant for a broader audience than his other works, it has a sharply polemical tone, and his argument does not digress into fine detail typical of a scholarly volume. Nevertheless, it is a powerfully effective challenge to early modern historiography.

Widstrom, Laura. “Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults’ Communication on Social Networking Websites.” Journal Of Youth Ministry 9, no. 1 (Fall 2010): 111-114.

Abstract: The article reviews the article “Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults’ Communication on Social Networking Websites,” by A. Y. Mikami, D. E. Szwedo, J. P. Allen, M. A. Evans and A. L. Hare, which appeared in the periodical “Developmental Psychology” in 2010.

Hill, Helene, and Matthew Hill. “The ethics of coding: are we committing fraud?.” JAAPA: Official Journal Of The American Academy Of Physician Assistants 24, no. 10 (October 2011): 67-68.

Abstract: A young PA had recently begun working in a busy emergency department, and although he was handling the medical aspect well, he was continuing to get flagged on documentation reports. This PA reviewed the reports and noticed that his documentation had cost his employer about $20,000 in lost charges that year. He began to sense pressure from his employer that if he did not improve his documentation, he might lose his job. One day while discussing a patient’s case with his attending, she mentioned to him that because this patient had been admitted to the hospital, more in‐depth documentation would be required in the chart. She said he would need to go back into the chart and “beef it up.” As the PA turned back to his computer, he thought, “Well, I didn’t exactly look inside this patient’s ears as she had come in for a diabetic foot ulcer. What do I document?”

Marshall, Todd E.  “The Conversing God: Exploring Trinitarian Information Transfer from the Perspective of Gordon Pask’s Conversation Theory” Advances in the Study of Information and Religion  1, no. 1 (September 1, 2011), Article 6.

Abstract: The traditional Christian belief in the Trinity states that God exists in three persons: Father, Son, and Spirit, and that people were created in “the image of God.” This is understood to mean that humans reflect the nature of God and His ability to communicate. This ancient Christian concept has implications not only for theology, but also for communication within Christian communities. The goal of this paper is to explore the ability of a modern information theory to shed light on this doctrine and improve communication within the Church. This paper seeks to bridge the gap between ancient theology and modern theory by asking the following question: “Can Gordon Pask’s conversation theory serve as a framework for information transfer within the Trinity and within Christian religious communities?” The author’s perspective is that conversation theory can be used as a framework for exploring knowledge creation and sharing within the Trinity and subsequently within the Christian community. These new insights are based on Pask’s conceptualization of psychological and mechanical individuals, entailment meshes, and consciousness. As these concepts create new perspectives, they have significance for communities who model their communicating on Trinitarian theology. This discussion will be based on theoretical, theological, and biblical evidence which demonstrates that conversation theory is compatible Trinitarian theology. Conclusions include implications for the process of creating and sharing religious knowledge from the individual and the corporate perspective.

Widstrom, Laura. “From the great omission to vibrant faith.” Journal Of Youth Ministry 10, no. 1 (Fall 2011): 141-144.

Abstract: Review article of Anderson, David W. From the great omission to vibrant faith. Youth and Family Institute, 2009.

Widstrom, Laura. “Evaluating Adolescent Catechesis.” Journal of Youth Ministry10, no. 1 (Fall 2011): 110–113.

Abstract: The article evaluates the effectiveness of adolescent catechetical curricula in fostering Christian discipleship. With statistics revealing that ten percent of Americans are former Catholics and that one third of Catholics born in the U.S. are no longer practicing their faith, Catholic church leaders are anxious to understand why so many young people are leaving the church and what tools might be effective in reversing the trend. The Youth in Theology and Ministry program is described.

Brewer, Kenneth. “The Cambridge Companion to John Wesley. Edited by Randy L. Maddox and Jason E. Vickers.” Heythrop Journal 52, no. 3 (May 2011): 513-514. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2265.2011.00663_58.x

Abstract: The Cambridge Companions to Religion series has provided numerous volumes of high quality to its readers. The recent addition, The Cambridge Companion to John Wesley, is no exception. The various chapters include four sections covering Wesley’s 18th century context, his life, work, and legacy. The text, in its entirety, provides an excellent overview and introduction not only to John Wesley in particular, but to the Wesleyan tradition in general.

Rinck, Jonathan M. “Printed Images in Early Modern Britain: Essays in Interpretation.” Sixteenth Century Journal 42, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 307-308.

Abstract: A review of the book “Printed Images in Early Modern Britain: Essays in Interpretation,” by Michael Hunter is presented.

Rinck, Jonathan. “European Art in the Columbia Museum of Art, Including the Samuel H Kress Collection.” Sixteenth Century Journal 42, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 283-284.

Abstract: A review of the book “European Art in the Columbia Museum of Art, Including the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Vol. 1: The 13th Through 16th Century,” by Charles R. Mack is presented.

Rinck, Jonathan. “Dialogues in Art History, From Mesopotamian to Modern.” Interdisciplinary Humanities 28, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 113-117.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Dialogues in Art History: From Mesopotamian to Modern,” edited by Elizabeth Cropper.

Hunt, Laura J.The Not-Very-Persecuted Church: Paul at the Intersection of Church and Culture. Eugene, Or.: Resource Publications, 2011.

The Not Very Persecuted ChurchHow do we live distinctively in communities embedded in the world around us? The Not-Very-Persecuted Church provides church leaders, pastors, and Christians interested in community development with principles for evaluating culture in light of mission. Since we are called to live in community, the processes that build group identity can help us understand how to live together well. Paul addressed some of the problems that can occur in not-very-persecuted groups in the first four chapters of 1 Corinthians, and he shows us the way suffering forms identity in that context.

With discussion questions and stories from personal interviews, this book offers both fascinating glimpses into the world of the first century and practical applications for Christians today.

Eells, Robert J. “Vietnam’s Second Front: Domestic Politics, the Republican Party, and the War.” Fides Et Historia 43, no. 1 (Winter, 2011): 119-120.

Abstract: Johns’ primary focus is on the Republican Party. Although a minority congressional presence throughout this entire period (roughly 1960-1975), they were a political force nonetheless. They were significant players, Johns states, because bipartisanship in foreign policy was more rhetoric than reality – especially as conditions in Vietnam deteriorated. By the mid-sixties, a different form of patriotism was driving Republican doves to the conclusion that the war was a losing proposition, that it couldn’t be won and was causing more harm than good.

Kirby, Angela M. “State Reforms Threaten Remote Community Life.” Ethnography And Education 6, no. 2 (January 1, 2011): 161-177. doi: 10.1080/17457823.2011.587356

Abstract: This paper reports on an ethnographic study of administrators, faculty, parents and community members in one remote Michigan school district. The purpose of the study is to describe and explain how Michigan’s educational reform perspective–arguably similar to the education reform perspectives of many states–encountered the educational perspective of members of one of the state’s most remote communities. I described education’s reform perspective, noted its conceptual coherence and conformity with calls for an improved – that is, more demanding, progressive, coordinated and centralised – system. The goal was to understand how that perspective encounters the educational perspective of a remote community. Put simply, the results suggested that Michigan’s educational reform perspective poses a direct threat to that community.

Lugioyo, Brian.  Martin Bucer’s Doctrine of Justification : Reformation Theology and Early Modern Irenicism: Reformation Theology and Early Modern Irenicism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Martin Bucer's Doctrine of JustificationMartin Bucer has usually been portrayed as a diplomat who attempted to reconcile divergent theological views, sometimes at any cost, or as a pragmatic pastor who was more concerned with ethics than theology. These representations have led to the view that Bucer was a theological lightweight, rightly placed in the shadow of Luther and Calvin. This book makes a different argument. Bucer was an ecclesial diplomat and a pragmatic pastor, yet his ecclesial and practical approaches to reforming the Church were guided by coherent theological convictions. Central to his theology was his understanding of the doctrine of justification, an understanding that Brian Lugioyo argues has an integrity of its own, though it has been imprecisely represented as intentionally conciliatory. It was this solid doctrine that guided Bucer’s irenicism and acted as a foundation for his entrance into discussions with Catholics between 1539 and 1541. Lugioyo demonstrates that Bucer was consistent in his approach and did not sacrifice his theological convictions for ecclesial expediency. Indeed his understanding was an accepted evangelical perspective on justification, one to be commended along with those of Luther and Calvin.

Yang, Guey-Meei, Melanie Peck, John Mozdzierz, and Christine Waugh-Fleischmann. “The Journey of Four Art Educators: Investigating the Educational Potential of Podcasts.” Art Education 63, no. 4 (July 2010): 33-39.

Abstract: During the winter 2007 art education graduate class at Eastern Michigan University, the professor and students experienced a journey as learners and teachers. This article is about their experiences exploring the educational potential of podcasts in teaching, particularly in a constructivist and situated-learning environment. Throughout the course, they functioned as a teacher-researcher community. Modeled and guided by the professor, each group collaboratively planned technology integration and researched the effectiveness of educational uses of podcasts, and individual group members carried out part of the plan in their own classrooms. Via regular sharing and offering suggestions, their learning was crisscrossed, allowing participation in each other’s project. Before telling their stories, the authors first provide some context of the graduate course and technological basics of podcasts in order to present necessary background knowledge to better understand their narratives.

Campolo, Tony, and Mary Albert DarlingConnecting Like Jesus: practices for healing, teaching, and preaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010.

Connecting Like JesusTony Campolo and Mary Albert Darling have teamed up to explore the dynamic connection that occurs when spirituality/spiritual practices are combined with effective communication practices. Churches and other religious organizations depend on the ability of their leaders and members to communicate (speak, teach, and preach) within their congregations and beyond. This important, practical guide will reveal Campolo’s preaching secrets and Darling’s wise counsel as a professor of communication.

Rinck, Jonathan. “James Barry, 1741-1806: History Painter.” CAA Reviews (College Art Association) (November 10, 2010): 1-2.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “James Barry, 1741-1806: History Painter,” edited by Tom Dunne and William L. Pressly.

Daigle-Williamson, Marsha. “Dante: A New Pauline Apostle?” Christian Scholar’s Review 40, no. 1 (2010): 39-58.

Abstract: There is general agreement among critics that Dante believed he was communicating biblical truths that were intended to have a salvific effect on his readers.9 Dante’s poetic strategy in achieving his overall purpose – and in legitimizing his literary enterprise as apostolic – includes an identification of his pilgrim (and himself) with Paul. By means of a fictional protagonist who is rescued dramatically from spiritual darkness and journeys to the heavens, and by means of writing an inspired poem of Christian instruction, Dante attempts to obey this New Testament exhortation through his poetic enterprise.

Letherer, Jen. “Hollywood Worldviews: Watching Films with Wisdom and Discernment/Word Pictures: Knowing God through Story and Imagination.” Christian Scholar’s Review 39, no. 2 (2010): 237-240.

Abstract: Even in this book I have struggled with this balance [of discussing positives and negatives]. Because of the constraint of space, I have tried to focus on movies that illustrate a particular point, good or bad, without examining the counterpoint. […] it seems to indicate that the readers Godawa wishes to influence should do what he says and not what he While the calls for discernment and understanding of narrative from different perspectives are extremely salient, Godawa’s practice of overgeneralizations nearly negates this call.

Washington, Ellis. “The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis.” Acta Universitatis Danubius.Juridica 6, no. 2 (2010): 25-52.

Abstract: This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-called Progressive movement-a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in American culture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals). Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals), the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

Foster, Nathan. Wisdom Chaser: Finding My Father at 14,000 Feet. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2014.

Wisdom ChaserThis book, Wisdom Chaser: Finding My Father at 14,000 Feet begins with a simple question from a struggling son to a world famous Father: “Hey Dad, you want to climb the highest mountain in Colorado?'” And for Nathan Foster and his father best selling author, Richard Foster Celebration of Discipline, Prayer, that simple question changed everything. With no hiking experience to draw on, they embarked on a journey of physical challenge, discovering just how far they could push themselves. For Nathan a parallel journey took him inside himself.

Having grown up in the shadow of a famous father, Richard J. Foster, Nathan had a lot of questions about who his father really was. Would hiking open the door for him to get to know this distant figure? As the one-time experiment evolved into a decade of challenging hikes up Colorado’s 14,000-foot peaks, the Fourteeners, Nathan navigated his twenties–finishing college, choosing a career, a possible cross-country move, the early years of marriage and a major personal crisis. Along the way he would discover exactly what his father could offer him.

White, Charles Edward. “Wesley and Methodist Studies, Vol. 1.” Fides Et Historia 42, no. 1 (Winter, 2010): 79-80.

Abstract: The Manchester Wesley Research Center has launched a new journal which, as its website says,”[publishes] scholarly essays that examine the life and work of John and Charles Wesley, their contemporaries (proponents or opponents) in the eighteenth-century Evangelical Revival, their historical and theological antecedents, their successors in the Wesleyan tradition, and studies of the contemporary Wesleyan and Evangelical traditions. Its primary historical scope is the eighteenth century to the present; however, WMS will publish essays that explore the historical and theological antecedents of the Wesleys (including work on Samuel and Susanna Wesley), Methodism, and the Evangelical Revival. This journal will have a dual and broad focus on both history and theology. Its aim is to present significant scholarly contributions that shed light on historical and theological understanding of Methodism broadly conceived.”

Harter, Joel.Poetry and Apocalypse: Theological Disclosures of Poetic Language.” Journal Of Religion 90, no. 1 (January 2010): 104-106.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Poetry and Apocalypse: Theological Disclosures of Poetic Language,” by William Franke.

Rawson, David. “Book Review: Burundi: Biography of a Small African Country.” African Studies Review 52, no. 3 (December 2009): 190-191.

Abstract: In its first ten years of independence, the emergent state of Burundi suffered the assassination of two prime ministers, several political massacres, two attempted coups, two successful coups, and in 1972, a revolt in the south followed by state-organized genocide. Except for path-breaking studies by Rene Lemarchand {Rwanda and Burundi [Praeger, 1970] and Burundi: Eth-nocide as Discourse and Practice [Cambridge University Press, 1994]), these events went largely unreported in English-language media and unexplored in scholarly analysis. In 1988 communal violence broke out in the north, followed by another brutal repression. This time, however, pressured by external demands and internal necessity, the military ruler, Pierre Buyoya, engineered a national political accommodation and free elections in 1993, which were won by his opponent, Melchior Ndadaye.

Correll, Mark R. “Kevin P. Spicer, Hitler’s Priests: Catholic Clergy and National Socialism.” Fides et Historia no. 1 (2009): 111.

Abstract: Kevin P. Spicer’s new work, Hitler’s Priests: Catholic Clergy and National Socialism, examines Catholic-Nazi cooperation by inspecting the role of the small but vocal group of clerical Nazi supporters, the so-called “brown priests.” Hitler’s Priests explores the brown priests’ lives through their correspondence, parish records, and publications. Spicer describes the pastoral and theological results of the brown priests’ worldview, as well as the rationale for their open support of the Nazi party. Taking nine of the most active clerical supporters of the Nazis, he sketches biographies of these individual priests, outlining their respective entries into a pro-Hitler stance, their agitation for the Nazis, and the difficulties they encountered either with the church hierarchy or party leadership.

Wyatt, Ken and William Bippes. “When General Booth Came to Jackson.(Company Overview).” Michigan History Magazine no. 6 (2009): 40.

Abstract: In the south-central Michigan community of Jackson, near the banks of the Grand River, stands a commanding brick railroad depot. There, on an October afternoon in 1886, General William Booth, founder of the international Salvation Army, stepped off a westbound train for what newspapers hailed as a “jubilee” and “demonstration.”

Rinck, Jonathan. “Abolition’s Indelible Image.” Michigan History Magazine no. 6 (2009): 8.

Abstract: The larger-than-life graphic grabs your attention the minute you walk into the Civil War gallery of the Michigan Historical Museum. Depicting an African man in chains, its caption calls out: “Am I not a man and a brother?” Though conceived in England, the image played a significant role in galvanizing support for the abolitionist cause in America. There were two Michigan connections to it as well.

Letherer, Jen. “Discovering World Religions at 24 Frames Per Second, by Julien R. Fielding.” Journal Of Media & Religion 8, no. 4 (October 2009): 245-246.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Discovering World Religions at 24 Frames Per Second,” by J. R. Fielding.

Holsinger-Friesen, ThomasIrenaeus and Genesis: A Study of Competition in Early Christian Hermeneutics. Winona Lake, Ind: Eisenbrauns, 2009.

Irenaeus and GenesisIrenaeus, the second-century bishop of Lyons, left such an impression upon the church that he is sometimes considered to be theology’s “founding father.” After all, his legacy includes such theological landmarks as the regula fidei (or “rule of faith”) and the doctrine of recapitulation. Although these ought not to be minimized, we may gain a new appreciation for this early bishop by highlighting a facet of his work that is even more central: the distinctive shape of the hermeneutic guiding his readings of sacred texts as Christian Scripture. Within the contemporary climate of twenty-first century theology, the reopening of questions of power, truth, authenticity, and holism points to a critique of hermeneutical process (not just theological end-product). In Irenaeus’s day, Gnostic Christians on the fringe of the church offered a vision of the telos of faith that many found compelling. Responding to this challenge required Irenaeus to articulate an even more satisfying Christian theology and anthropology on the basis of Scripture and received apostolic tradition. In this battle of hermeneutics, both sides considered protological texts such as Genesis 1:26 and 2:7 to be indispensible. Through a sympathetic reading, then, of Irenaeus and his competitors, we aim to better understand why Irenaeus’s biblical interpretations ultimately were deemed more plausible, faithful, and fruitful within the mainstream of the church.

Hirdes, WendyRobert Woods, and Diane M. Badzinski. “A Content Analysis of Jesus Merchandise.” Journal of Media and Religion 8, no. 3 (2009): 141-157. doi:

Abstract: Despite the growing popularity of Jesus merchandise in Christian retailing, little attention has been given to nontraditional religious media such as Jesus merchandise. The present study examined the persuasive appeals associated with various forms of Jesus merchandise and the primary communication functions that such merchandise fit. A content analysis of 982 pieces of Jesus merchandise revealed that informational and “good times” appeals are the two most common appeals used to promote Christianity. Jesus’ name is used in logical or rational appeals designed to change beliefs and promote positive attitudes toward the Christian faith, while Jesus’ image is used in emotional appeals. Edification is the most common communication function that fit Jesus merchandise analyzed in this study, with evangelism and public relations finishing a distant second and third, respectively. Implications of using certain persuasive strategies and associating particular values with Jesus merchandise were considered.

Jindra, Ines W. and Michael Jindra. “Alien Worlds: Social and Religious Dimensions of Extraterrestrial Contact.” Sociology of Religion 70, no. 2 (Summer, 2009): 200-201.

Here, we found Scott Scribner’s chapter to be especially interesting, since he highlights parallels between religion and these experiences, notably in the area of “interactions with supernatural beings, stmggles between good and evil, encounters with overpowering benevolent (‘light’) forces or malevolent (‘dark’) forces, conversion and reframing of interpretations (belief templates), the notion of being chosen, visions, testimonial evidence, the occasional channeling of otherworldly beings, altered states of consciousness, healing narratives, and apocalyptic pronouncements” (151-152).

Correll, Mark R. “Between Tradition and Modernity: Aby Warburg and the Public Purposes of Art in Hamburg, 1896-1918.” H-Net Reviews In The Humanities & Social Sciences (April 2009): 1-3.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Between Tradition and Modernity: Aby Warburg and the Public Purposes of Art in Hamburg, 1896-1918,” by Mark A. Russell.

Jindra, Ines W. “Comparing Biographical Backgrounds of Religious Founders and Converts to those Religions: An Exploratory Study.” Pastoral Psychology 58, no. 4 (2009): 365-385. doi:

Abstract: This paper is an exploratory, preliminary investigation of the possible links between the biographical backgrounds and developmental trajectories of major religious figures such as Jesus Christ, Muhammad, Buddha, and Baha’u’llah, and the backgrounds of those who convert to these religions (or certain groups within these religions) in the West. This article ends with the hypothesis that in terms of biographical backgrounds and motivations for conversion, followers’ narratives resemble those of their religious leaders in some areas.

Norwood, Jeremy. “Smuggling and Trafficking of Human Beings: All Roads Lead to America.” International Journal Of Comparative And Applied Criminal Justice 33, no. 2 (2009): 365-368. doi:10.1080/01924036.2009.9678813

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “Smuggling and Trafficking of Human Beings: All Roads Lead to America” by Sheldon X. Zhang.

O’Rourke-Kelly, MargaretPhenomenal Women: The Dora Stockman Story. Canton, MI: Zoe Life Publishing, 2008.
Phenomenal Women

It was a moment of serendipity while Margaret O’Rourke Kelly was working on her own campaign for a seat in the Michigan House of Representatives, that she discovered the archival records of Dora Hall Stockman, the first woman to hold elected state office in Michigan. This began her fascination with this often overlooked historical figure but through Hall Stockman’s plays, stories, poetry, songs and overwhelming contributions to the agricultural community, she has created an intriguing biography of a strong, patriotic woman of God, often ahead of her time, who overcame the constraints of her life and times to make a lasting contribution to American society.

Jindra, Ines W. “Religious Stage Development among Converts to Different Religious Groups.” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 18, no. 3 (2008): 195-215. doi:

Abstract: Only a few studies have dealt with the relationship between faith development theory and conversion or apostasy, though some have called for these studies. In this study, I compare religious judgment and religious stage transformations of 47 converts, focusing specifically on four case studies of conversions to Christianity, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and Unitarian Universalists. The research was conducted from 2001 to 2006 in the midwestern United States and utilized religious dilemmas, narrative biographical interviews, and content analysis. It was found that there was a close affinity between a person’s conversion or apostasy narrative and their trajectory of religious judgment.

Woods, Robert H., Jr. “Review of Communication, Media, and Identity: A Christian Theory of Communication.” Journal of Media and Religion 7, no. 3 (2008): 190-194. doi:

Abstract: Reviews the book, Communication, Media, and Identity: A Christian Theory of Communication by Robert S. Fortner (2007). Throughout this scholarly book, which culls from a wide range of literature on the philosophy and theology of communication, Fortner defines some of the basic characteristics or norms of Christian communication. He nicely summarizes these characteristics in chapter 11 on “Implications,” which reads like a manifesto of Christian communication. Readers could begin with chapter 11 before tackling chapters 1-10 as a way to keep the “big ideas” in mind throughout the chapters; it makes for a great introduction to the major issues. The author’s work is ideally suited for anyone teaching communication from a biblical perspective or for those interested in critiquing or conducting faith-based scholarship.

Baker, Jack R. “Christ’s Crucifixion and ‘Robin Hood and the Monk’: a Latin Charm Against Thieves in Cambridge, University Library, MS Ff.5.48.” Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 14, no. 1 (2008): 71-85.

Abstract: The study offers a commentary, transcription, and translation of a previously unpublished Latin version of a charm against thieves titled _Contra ffures et latrones_. In the charm, the story of the two thieves who are crucified with Christ becomes a signification for those travelers who seek to avoid roadside robbers. The charm is bound in a 15th century MS attributed to Gilbert Pilkington that includes the earliest known Robin Hood poem, and allows us to point toward the very real fear of thieves in the late Middle Ages, observe the steps taken for protection against them, and empathize with the thief’s potential for redemption.

Satterlee, Thom and Robert Moore-JumonvilleLent and Easter Wisdom from G.K. Chesterton: Daily Scripture and Prayers Together with G.K. Chesterton’s Own Words. Liguori, Mo.: Liguori Publications, 2008.

Lent and Easter Wisdom from G.K. ChestertonG. K. Chesterton is one of the few Christian thinkers admired and quoted equally by Christians of all types and even by non-Christians. Each daily reflection in this book–from Ash Wednesday through the Second Sunday of Easter–begins with thoughts from the finest writings of Chesterton on an appropriate theme and supported by Scripture, a prayer, and a suggested activity for spiritual growth. – See more at:


Satterlee, Thom and Robert Moore-JumonvilleAdvent and Christmas Wisdom from G.K. Chesterton: Daily Scripture and Prayers Together with G.K. Chesterton’s Own Words. Liguori, Mo.: Liguori Publications, 2007.

Advent and Christmas WisdomIn this edition of Advent and Christmas Wisdom, each day’s reflection includes a selection from one of Chesterton’s finest works, a suitable bible verse, an appropriate prayer and an action-oriented exercise. Readers will find the format stays the same, but this addition to our bestselling series is truly a refreshing, prayerful preparation for the coming of Christ at Christmas.


Jindra, Michael. “Video game worlds.” Society 44, no. 4 (2007): 67-73.

Abstract: The article reports on the writings about the cultural phenomenon and effect of the video game industry. It focuses on the pros and cons of gaming. Debates and arguments related to the topic is also presented. Some of the writers celebrate gaming because it display the powerful combination of entertainment, competition, and technology, while the others add a cautionary note stating that our social and moral aspect are neglected. However, all of them agree that video games is a phenomenon that will have social implications. In relation, an overview of the eletronic game industry’s technological development is offered.

Campolo, Tony, and Mary Albert DarlingThe God of Intimacy and Action: Reconnecting Ancient Spiritual Practices, Evangelism, and Justice. San Franciso: Jossey-Bass, 2007.

The Stem Cell EpistlesThe God of Intimacy and Action reveals how contemplative spiritual practices can lead to greater intimacy with God and fuel passion for reaching out to others, through spreading the Good News and fostering justice for the poor and oppressed. The authors show why this combination is not only crucial but historical: it is vividly demonstrated in the lives of saints such as St Francis of Assisi, Ignatius of Loyola and Catherine of Siena.

Campolo and Darling explain mystical spirituality and its practices, and integrate them with evangelism and justice to illuminate what they call ‘holistic Christianity’. They suggest specific ways to nurture and energize one’s spirituality and show how to go beyond living a Christian life that merely emphasizes right beliefs and right behaviours.

Ebersole, Samuel, and Robert Woods. “Motivations for viewing reality television: a uses and gratification analysis.” Southwestern Mass Communication Journal 23, no. 1 (September 2007): 23-42.

Abstract: This survey research examines motives for viewing Reality TV programs. Employing a uses and gratifications approach, this study found five factors that explain program choice preference: personal identification with real characters, entertainment, mood change, pass time, and vicarious participation. The relationships of the aforementioned factors to viewers’ level of TV viewing, affinity for viewing, perceived realism, and parasocial interaction were examined. The study found that Reality TV viewers expand previous notions of ritualized or instrumental viewing categories identified by earlier TV viewer research, and that the interactive nature of Reality TV programming may contribute to the strong sense of personal identification that many viewers experience.

Eells, Robert J. “Where did the Party Go?: William Jennings Bryan, Hubert Humphrey, and the Jeffersonian Legacy.” Fides Et Historia 39, no. 1 (Winter, 2007): 149-152.

Abstract: “To use a biblical analogy,” according to the author, “one could say that the Democratic Party exchanged its birthright for a mess of pottage” (271). The birthright was true, principled Jeffersonian liberalism-incarnate in the third president and later embodied in Andrew Jackson, Martin VanBuren, and especially in William Jennings Bryan’s evangelical populism. Pottage, on the other hand, was the disastrous direction first taken by Woodrow Wilson, then quickly followed by the Hamiltonian statism of FDR, LBJ, and the author’s particular nemesis, Hubert H. Humphrey.

Woods, Robert, and Brian WalrathThe Message in the Music: Studying Contemporary Praise and Worship. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2007.

The Making of an Ordinary SaintThe definitive guide to the meaning of today’s most popular praise and worship songs. Few things influence Christians’ understanding of the faith more than the songs they sing in worship. The explosion of praise and worship music in the last fifteen years has profoundly affected our experience of God. So what are those songs telling us about who God is? In what ways have they made us more faithful disciples of Jesus Christ? In what ways have they failed to embody the full message of the gospel?

Working with the lists of the most frequently sung praise and worship songs from recent years, the authors of this book offer an objective but supportive assessment of the meaning and contribution of the Christian music that has been so important in the lives of contemporary believers.

White, Charles Edward. “God by the numbers: coincidence and random mutation are not the most likely explanations for some things.” Christianity Today 50, no. 3 (March 1, 2006): 44-47.

Abstract: Math and theology have had a long and checkered relationship. The Babylonians and Mayans both associated numbers with God. In fact, both societies named their gods with numbers. The Mayans used 13 and the Babylonians used 60. In the Greek world, followers of Pythagoras prayed to the first 4 numbers and thought they were the creator. On the other hand, in the 18th century, the French mathematician Laplace told Napoleon he had no need of God even as a hypothesis, and in 1744, John Wesley confessed: “I am convinced, from many experiments, I could not study either mathematics, arithmetic, or algebra … without being a deist, if not an atheist.”

Knight, David A., Robert H. Woods Jr, and Ines W. Jindra. “Gender Differences in the Communication of Christian Conversion Narratives.” Review of Religious Research (2005): 113–134.

Abstract: Scholars have long sought to find the differences in the ways men and women communicate. Also, researchers have studied the field of religious conversion. Thisfirst-of-a-kind study has sought to find if gender differences arise when men and women communicate the story of their religious conversion. Forty structured in-depth interviews with 20 male and 20 female undergraduate students at a small, private Christian liberal arts university in the Midwest were used to address the stated research question. Five male and five females were selected from each grade level. A non-probability sampling procedure was used to select subjects. The final sample consisted of two Hispanics, one Black, and 37 White non-Hispanic participants. The average age of each participant was 20. Although some authors have suggested that conversion stories of men and women would be similar due to a rhythmic narrative formula and common structural elements, this study has found that significant gender differences in the communication of such narratives do arise in certain specific areas. The majority of men used adventurous metaphors, while the majority of women used peaceful metaphors to describe their conversion experiences. It was also found that the majority of men focused on themselves as the control character while most women focused on someone else. And, men described themselves as clever whereas women described themselves as foolish in their narratives.

Alban Jr., DonaldRobert H. Woods Jr., and Marsha Daigle-Williamson. “The Writings of William Carey: Journalism as Mission in a Modern Age.” Mission Studies: Journal Of The International Association For Mission Studies 22, no. 1 (April 2005): 85-113.

Abstract: William Carey is reviewed as both product and producer of journalism, with an emphasis on the latter and its synergistic relationship to his mission work and the work of others. Carey’s philosophy of life was formed largely by the written works of his predecessors and contemporaries. Specifically, Jonathan Edwards, John Bunyan, Jeremy Taylor, Captain James Cook, and Robert Hall, among others, clearly affected his out-look on theology, missions, Bible translation, ecumenism, and a host of related topics. Writings by Cook opened Carey’s eyes to distant people, whom he evaluated in the light of his journalistically influenced theology. Consequently, Carey became concerned about the spiritual and moral state of the world abroad. His concern found expression in the Enquiry — a polemic for missionary work — and ultimately led him to Bengal, where his own attempts to influence people through journalism expanded. Carey’s own writings and those of his colleagues at the Serampore Mission are the most obvious examples of his journalistic works. But they hardly stand alone. Thus, after the authors describe the emergence and significance of the Enquiry and the Serampore Press, they refer to other publications printed either at Serampore or elsewhere in response to the press’ influence. Among these are works as diverse as textbooks, governmental publications, and periodical apologetics for Hinduism. The Serampore mission’s expansion of Indian literacy also is reviewed because of its relevance to understanding the influence of others’ writings on his life’s philosophy and work. It further helps to shed light on Carey’s distinct approach to evangelization, presented herein as a form of inculturation. Lastly, many would not have become readers of the mission’s works had it not equipped them to read through its network of native schools. The authors suggest that Serampore’s journalistic mission extended beyond the mere production of writings; it also included the production of a readership.

Eells, Robert J. “Public Life and the Historical Imagination.” Fides Et Historia 37, no. 1 (Winter, 2005): 135-137.

Abstract: The article reviews the book “Public Life and the Historical Imagination,” edited by Wendy Gamber, Michael Grossberg, and Hendrik Hartog.

Jindra, Michael. “Christianity and the Proliferation of Ancestors: Changes in Heirarchy and Mortuary Ritual in the Cameroon Grassfields.” Africa (Pre-2011) 75, no. 3 (2005): 356-377.

Abstract: During the twentieth century, the ‘death celebration’ became arguably the most important cultural event throughout much of the Western Grassfields of Cameroon. The growth of this ritual festival occurred in the context of major political, economic and religious changes in the Grassfields. This article will focus on how religious changes, particularly the growth of Christianity, contributed to the rise of this event and how it has prompted significant changes in notions and practices concerning the pollution of death, personhood, burial rites and the ancestors. In the traditional hierarchical structure of Grassfields society, only certain titled individuals and chiefs were believed to live on after death and become ancestors. This was reflected in burial rituals. Individuals who became ancestors were buried in family compounds while ‘unimportant’ people were frequently disposed of in the ‘bush’, streams or hurriedly given unmarked burials. Christianity, because of its stress on individual personhood and its message of an afterlife for everyone, became an attractive alternative to established beliefs and practices, especially for young adults, women and those without titles, who were the most disenfranchised in the traditional system. With Christianity, burial rites became standardized and were extended to virtually everyone. Christianity also caused declines in notions of death ‘pollution’ and in beliefs about ‘bad deaths’. Because of continued beliefs in the power of ancestors, the egalitarian notions of personhood stimulated by Christianity have ironically created a ‘proliferation’ of ancestors for whom delayed mortuary rites such as ‘death celebrations’ are owed.

Bohus, Steve, Robert H., Jr. Woods, and K. Caleb Chan. “Psychological Sense of Community among Students on Religious Collegiate Campuses in the Christian Evangelical Tradition.” Christian Higher Education 4, no. 1 (January 1, 2005): 19-40.

Abstract: The current study sought to identify factors which contribute to Psychological Sense of Community (PSC) among students on religious collegiate campuses within the Christian Evangelical tradition. The researchers examined responses from 596 undergraduate students at 11 Christian colleges and universities nationwide. The results support the viability of a new PSC construct in the religious collegiate campus setting. More specifically, the results suggest the possibility of a religious PSC construct (PSCALL) that contains elements of Lounsbury and DeNeui’s (1995) 14-item PSC scale but also items contextualized to a religious collegiate setting. Significant PSCALL differences were identified in the following areas: spiritual well-being, religious commitment, minority/non-minority status, living arrangement, major, and class level. Contrary to previous studies in the secular college campus setting, PSCALL differences in gender could not be identified. This study extends previous research on PSC in general and the PSC construct in the Christian college campus setting specifically. Theoretically, the current investigation supports the notion that certain aspects of community change from setting to setting and that even the meaning of “community” changes depending on context.

Metts,Wallis C.,Jr. “Christianity and the Mass Media in America: Toward a Democratic Accommodation.” Christian Scholar’s Review 34, no. 1 (Fall, 2004): 155-156.

Abstract: In one corner, evangelicals hope to harness the immense power of the media to reach the world with the message of the Gospel. In the other corner, secular journalists fail to understand American religious thought and have excluded it from the public square. In between, we have Quentin Schultze’s new scholarly analysis, Christianity and the Mass Media in America.

Woods, Robert, Jason D. Baker, and Dave Hopper. “Hybrid structures: Faculty use and perception of web-based courseware as a supplement to face-to-face instruction.” Internet & Higher Education 7, no. 4 (December 2004): 281-297. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.09.002

Abstract: The researchers examined responses from 862 faculty members at 38 institutions nationwide using the blackboard Learning Management System (LMS) to supplement their face-to-face instruction. The four research questions addressed the primary uses that faculty make of blackboard, perceptions that faculty have of how certain blackboard features enhance or elevate (or might enhance or elevate) their assessment of student work and instructional capabilities, and how faculty use of blackboard might positively affect the psychosocial climate within the face-to-face classroom setting. Additional analysis sought to identify the factors that predict use and positive perception of blackboard as a supplement to face-to-face teaching activities. The results indicate that faculty primarily used blackboard as a course management/administration tool to make course documents available to students and manage course grades. Few faculty used blackboard for instructional or assessment purposes, and even fewer utilized blackboard to foster a more positive sense of community within their face-to-face classes. Faculty attitudes, on the whole, were positive when it came to the classroom management functions of blackboard, but neutral or otherwise undecided in terms of its instructional or psychosocial benefits. The main factor in determining blackboard usage—whether for course administration or instructional purposes—was experience with the tool. In addition, women had more positive attitudes than men did in terms of blackboard”s potential to enhance classroom management and foster a positive relational climate. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are discussed before concluding.

White, Charles Edward. “Holiness Fire-Starter.”Christian History & Biography no. 82 (Spring 2004): 16-21.

Abstract: Presents a biography of Phoebe Palmer, the most influential woman in the mid-19th-century Methodism in America. Impact of the death of her child on the choice of life she choose to live; Theology developed and presented by Palmer in her testimony to one’s experience with God; Contributions of Palmer to Theology, revivalism, feminism and humanitarianism.

Woods, Robert, and Samuel Ebersole“Becoming a ‘Communal Architect’ in the Online Classroom-Integrating Cognitive and Affective Learning for Maximum Effect in Web-Based Learning.” Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 6, no. 1 (2003).

Abstract: Successful online instructors realize that building a sense of “community” in the online classroom is necessary for successful learning outcomes (Gunawardena, 1994; Wiesenberg & Hutton, 1996; Campbell, 1997; Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997; McLellan, 1999; Kazmer, 2000; Wegerif, 1998). The development of community “becomes a parallel stream to the content being explored” in online courses: [It is not] “something that ‘mucks up’ or interferes with the learning process (Palloff & Pratt, 1999, p. 30).

Jindra, Michael. “Natural/supernatural conceptions in Western cultural contexts.” Anthropological Forum13, no. 2 (November 2003): 159-167. doi: 10.1080/0066467032000129824

Abstract: Focuses on the concept of natural and supernatural conceptions in Western culture. Description of the concept of ideals being natural or supernatural; Definitions of spirituality in the Western world; Relevance of supernatural and natural in the context of institutional faith.

Woods, Robert H. “How Much Communication Is Enough in Online Courses?- Exploring the Relationship Between Frequency of Instructor- Initiated Personal Email and Learners’ Perceptions of and Participation in Online Learning.”International Journal of Instructional Media 29, no. 4 (December 2002): 377–394.

Abstract: The researcher, an online instructor at the graduate level, considered whether more frequent delivery of instructor-initiated personal (text-only) emails outside of required class discussion formats would result in more favorable student perceptions of the student/faculty relationship, higher student ratings of perceived sense of online community, and a higher degree of satisfaction with the overall learning experience than would less fequent delivery of such instructor-initiated personal emails. The researcher was also interested whether more frequent delivery of personal emails would result in higher levels of student participation in required group discussion formats. Results: regardless of the number of personal emails sent to students throughout the semester, a statistically significant difference between groups could not be identified along the lines of perceived sense of of community, satisfaction with the overall learning experience, or personal relationship with the instructor. More frequent delivery of personalized email did not increase the amount of student participation in required discussion formats. The same positive results were achieved whether the instructor sent two (2) or fifteen (15) personal emails. Explanations for the findings are offered along with suggestions for future research. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

Ines, Wenger Jindra. “Crossing the Gods: World Religions and Worldly Politics.” Social Forces 81, no. 1 (2002): 378-380.

Abstract: Are there “culture wars” occurring in countries other than the U.S.? The main theme of this fascinating book is the relationship between religion and politics around the world. In the first part, the author combines an anthropological approach with travelography and takes his readers on a worldwide journey, using the image of religion as a moth circling the flame (politics). Religion, like the moth, increases both its possible gains (e.g., it can energize politics, provide legitimacy and moral leverage) and possible losses (e.g., assassinations of openly religious figures, religious violence or religious lethargy due to influence of the government) by approaching the political flame too closely. In order to understand these issues, he stresses the cultural context of religion over its doctrine.

Jindra, Michael. “Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress.” American Anthropologist 104, no. 3 (09, 2002): 978-979.

Abstract: Why has such an enormous gap developed between rich and poor countries of the world? Some have argued alternatively for differences in geography or environment, political or economic systems, or histories of exploitation. Cultural differences have also been a major explanation, and, given the central role of the culture concept in our discipline, anthropologists should be talking the lead in this discussion, but too often other scholars pick up where we fear to tread, as this book does.

Ebersole, Samuel E., and Robert Woods. “Virtual Community: Koinonia or Compromise?-Theological Implications of Community in Cyberspace.” Christian Scholars Review 31, no. 2 (2001): 185–216.

Abstract: With the growth of computer-mediated communication and the rise of virtual communities, theological issues relating to the nature of these relationships must be addressed. The authors first define community and then explore recent trends in online communities. The discussion of virtual community and new media technologies is grounded in a historical context focusing on the introduction of the telegraph and radio broadcasting. Buber’s dialogic communication is proposed as a normative base for community in light of the interpersonal character of online community. And finally, six virtues of community are discussed in light of the technologies and practices of online community.

Brauch, Jeffrey, and Robert Woods. “Faith, Learning and Justice in Alan Dershowitz’s The Genesis of Justice: Toward a Proper Understanding of the Relationship between the Bible and Modern Justice.” Valparaiso University Law Review 36, no. 1 (October 15, 2001): 1-71.

Abstract: We first want to commend you for undertaking the challenge to interweave your legal education with a biblical perspective. The Seminar correctly recognizes what generations of scholars have clearly demonstrated: the Bible is foundational to our modern American conceptions of law and justice.
We were delighted to hear Professor Dershowitz’s report on the amount of interest in the Seminar when it was first offered at Harvard in the Fall of 1997: 150 students for twenty places! The interest displayed for this class, not to mention the very existence of the Seminar itself, is consistent with what has been called the “religious revival” at American law schools that is changing the face of legal education as we know it. And since we were unable to attend the Seminar, we have accepted Professor Dershowitz’s gracious invitation to “continue the dialogue” in this format and trust that our comments will be submitted to you so as to add to the “dialogue among generations.”

Woods, Robert, and Jack Keeler. “The Effect of Instructor’s Use of Audio E-mail Messages on Student Participation in and Perceptions of Online Learning: a preliminary case study.” Open Learning 16, no. 3 (October 2001): 263-278. doi: 10.1080/02680510120084977

Abstract: The researchers, in the context of LEAD 713, a graduate-level online course at Regent University, consider whether the systematic use of instructor-initiated audio e-mails (as a supplement to regular textual forms of communication) will increase students’ participation in group discussion and result in more favorable student perceptions of student/faculty relationships and quality of group discussion, a greater sense or feeling of online community, and a higher degree of satisfaction with the overall learning experience. The results as a whole appear to challenge the researchers’ initial assumptions. Benefits of audio e-mails are discussed and future research designs are suggested.

White, Charles Edward. “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Church.” Christian History  20 no. 1 (2001): 28.

Abstract: Though Methodism thrived on big crowds, its survival depended on the discipline of small groups. When the Methodist movement began to grow, John Wesley faced the problem of dealing with converts who returned to their old ways. Many Methodists came from the lowest social classes, so nothing in their background or environment helped them live the “sober, quiet, godly lives” Wesley prescribed. Their backsliding discouraged those who were trying to follow Christ and gave Methodism’s detractors ammunition.

Metts, Wallis C. Jr“Home sweet hassle.” Educational Leadership 54, (October 1996): 72-73.

Abstract: Part of a special section on school choice and charter schools. The writer discusses his own and his partner’s experiences as home schoolers. They have no delusions that home schooling was easy. It became a political decision, as they had to lobby for the right to do it. They have also had to defend their decision to school officials, in-laws, close friends, and even total strangers, all of whom believed that their children would become social misfits. However, their children are socialized, civilized, and sensitive. The writer states that home schooling is a labor of love and contends that no child will be the worse for having experienced the focused attention of a caring adult, particularly the child’s own parent.

White, Charles Edward. “Teaching Mark’s gospel to Muslims: lessons from an African university.”Christianity Today 37, no. 2 (1993): 39.

Abstract: A Spring Arbor College professor found teaching Christian studies to Muslim students rewarding. Mark’s gospel was used as a means of clearing up some linguistic, cultural and religious differences that caused confusion.

Metts, Wally. “Carving out a niche: small presses are developing innovative – and often local – strategies for reaching young readers.” Publishers Weekly 238, no. 50 (Nov 15, 1991): 36.

Abstract: Many small presses are expanding into the children’s literature market and are emphasizing niche publishing. The niche is often regional, but can also include specific areas of interest. A look at the market is presented.

Runyon, Daniel. “A Buttleman Portrait.” Music Educators Journal 67, no. 7 (1981): 45-47. doi: 10.2307/3400653

Abstract: Sixty-nine years ago, Eulalia S. Snyder met a dashing twenty-five-year-old printer in Jackson, Michigan. He was Clifford V. Buttleman, the man who would become the longest-reigning editor of Music Educators Journal and would serve from 1930 to 1955 as executive secretary of Music Educators National Conference. At that time he had printer’s ink under his nails and was working on the side producing direct mail advertising for the Gibson Musical Instrument Company in Kalamazoo.

McKenna, DavidThe Urban Crisis: A Symposium on the Racial Problem in the Inner City. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1969.

Papers presented at a seminar held at Spring Arbor College in January of 1968.


McKenna, David L. “Review of Forum and Focus for the Junior College Movement.” The Journal of Higher Education 35, no. 9 (1964): 523-24.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “Forum and Focus for the Junior College Movement” by Michael Brick.