# Faculty Publications

A place to highlight and record faculty publications.

## Sciences

Day, Dawn and Edson, Wendy. Postpartum Patient Teaching Success” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing 46, no. 3 (June 16, 2017): S48-49.

Abstract: The article focuses on a study to have an understanding of role of the structure and process of discharge teaching practices on successful postpartum teaching. Topics discussed include positive correlation between the outcome of patient learning, patient concerns over nurse availability, timing of teaching, and teaching strategies, and developing a specific protocol for effective patient teaching strategies.

Johnson, Deborah. Common Variable Immunodeficiency: A Clinical Overview” Clinician Reviews 27, no. 6 (June 2017): 38-42

Abstract: Often appearing as recurrent or recalcitrant infections, the diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is often missed. Patients remain untreated for long periods of time, resulting in complications. Arm yourself with expert information about this rare genetic disorder.

Chang, Kate W-C., Amy Austin, Jan Yeaman, Lauren Phillips, Anna Kratz, Lynda J-S. Yang, and Noelle E. Carlozzi. Health-Related Quality of Life Components in Children With Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy: A Qualitative Study.” PM&R (2017).

Abstract: Currently, no published, validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exist for use with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP). NBPP is a debilitating condition that occurs during the perinatal period, resulting in paralysis/paresis and loss of sensation in the affected arm. Commonly used NBPP measures are not comprehensive and do not fully account for clinically meaningful changes in function or progression of the disorder.

Thomas S. Kuntzleman, Laura S. Davenport, Victoria CothranJacob T. Kuntzlemanand Dean J. Campbell. New Demonstrations and New Insights on the Mechanism of the Candy-Cola Soda Geyser.” Journal of Chemical Education94 no. 5, (February 23, 2017) 569-576

Abstract: When carbonated beverages (which are supersaturated solutions of aqueous carbon dioxide) are confined within a narrow-necked container, events which rapidly release the gas from solution produce a fountain out of the beverage. One well-known variant of this experiment is the addition of Mentos candies to a bottle of Diet Coke. Previous reports have shown that the presence of aspartame and benzoate in carbonated beverages enhance the fountaining effect. These additives are thought to enhance fountaining by lowering the surface tension of the beverage, but the details of this process are not completely understood. This paper explores the relationship between geyser height and the type of carbonated beverage. It is shown herein that several other compounds commonly found in commercial carbonated drinks such as sucrose, glucose, citric acid, and components of natural flavors also enhance geyser heights. By examining how these additives affect bubbling and foaming behavior in seltzer water, it is postulated that solutes which inhibit bubble coalescence contribute to higher fountains.

Sims, Trevor P. T., and Thomas S. Kuntzleman. “Kinetic Explorations of the Candy-Cola Soda Geyser.” Journal Of Chemical Education 93, no. 10 (October 11, 2016): 1809-1813.

Abstract: Protocols for examining the kinetics of CO2 escape from solution during the popular Diet Coke and Mentos experiment have been explored. The methods developed allow teachers to demonstrate and students to explore various physicochemical processes involved when Mentos candies are placed in Diet Coke. For example, a pH meter can be used to observe a slight decrease in acidity as dissolved CO2 escapes the soda. Furthermore, a balance or CO2 sensor can be used to directly measure CO2 escape. Arrhenius analysis of degassing rates determined using these latter methods yielded an activation energy of 25 kJ mol-1 for the conversion of CO2(aq) to CO2(g). The materials required for the experiments are easy to acquire and set up; therefore these investigations are amenable for use in high school and undergraduate chemistry classrooms and laboratories.

Kay Klymko, LuAnn Etcher, Joan Munchiando, and Mary Royse. “Video Monitoring: A Room with a View, or a Window to Challenges in Falls Prevention Research?.” MEDSURG Nursing 25, no. 5 (September 2016): 329-333.

Abstract: This qualitative study using focus groups of hospital personnel supports known antecedents to falls in a video monitoring (VM) setting. Although VM can improve the understanding of behaviors leading to falls, further research is needed to support VM methods.

Hall, Johnathon M., John R. Amend, and Thomas S. Kuntzleman.Experiments to illustrate the chemistry and bouncing ability of fresh and spent zinc-manganese oxide alkaline batteries.” Journal Of Chemical Education no. 4 (2016): 676-680.

Abstract: Why do dead batteries bounce considerably higher than fresh batteries? This phenomenon has a chemical explanation that can be used to teach students about the chemistry of alkaline Zn/MnO2 cells. Batteries discharged to various extents can be tested for bounciness and conversion of Zn to ZnO. These measurements allow students to connect the chemistry that powers these batteries with the increased bouncing effect. The experiments can be presented as a teacher-led demonstration or hands-on laboratory for students.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., and Erik C. Jacobson.Teaching Beer’s Law and Absorption Spectrophotometry with a Smart Phone: A Substantially Simplified Protocol.” Journal of Chemical Education, January 29, 2016. doi:10.1021/acs.jchemed.5b00844.

Abstract: A very simple protocol for teaching Beer’s Law and absorption spectrophotometry using a smart phone is described. Materials commonly found in high school chemistry laboratories or even around the house may be used. Data collection and analysis is quick and easy. Despite the simple nature of the experiment, excellent results can be achieved.

Hall, Johnathon M., John R. Amend, and Thomas S. Kuntzleman. “Experiments To Illustrate the Chemistry and Bouncing Ability of Fresh and Spent Zinc–Manganese Oxide Alkaline Batteries.” Journal of Chemical Education (published online January 2016). doi: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.5b00796

Abstract: Why do dead batteries bounce considerably higher than fresh batteries? This phenomenon has a chemical explanation that can be used to teach students about the chemistry of alkaline Zn/MnO2 cells. Batteries discharged to various extents can be tested for bounciness and conversion of Zn to ZnO. These measurements allow students to connect the chemistry that powers these batteries with the increased bouncing effect. The experiments can be presented as a teacher-led demonstration or hands-on laboratory for students.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S.  National Chemistry Week: A Platform for Scholarship“. Journal of Chemical Education 92, no. 10 (October 2015): 1585-1588. doi: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.5b00660

Abstract: National Chemistry Week (NCW) is an annual centerpiece for chemistry outreach orchestrated by the American Chemical Society. During this week, chemical educators promote chemistry through public lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on experiments. These exhibits inspire and motivate students, young and old, to study and appreciate chemistry more deeply. Chemical educators also benefit through participation in NCW, because doing so has great potential to initiate and advance scholarly efforts. How outreach efforts such as those associated with NCW can stimulate and support scholarship in chemistry is described.

Buratovich, Michael.Leaving the Fold: Darwin’s Doubt and the Evolution of Protein Folds.” Reports of the National Center for Science Education 35, no. 5 (2015).

Abstract: In an earlier article (Buratovich 2015), I examined one of the main arguments promulgated by Discovery Institute philosopher of science, Stephen Meyer, in his book Darwin’s Doubt (2013). Meyer maintains that the rapid diversification of animal life during the Cambrian “explosion” required the swift evolution of new genes that provided animals with the genetic information needed to form new cell types. In that article, I showed that not only does the fossil record show evidence of complex multicellular life well before the Cambrian explosion, but also sequenced genomes of modern sponges and cnidarians (corals, Hydra, and sea anemones) possess the genes necessary to build more complex animals, strongly suggesting that the ancestors of these creatures had all the genes necessary for the Cambrian explosion. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase in novel animal forms was due to innovative regulation of these genes during animal development rather than the evolution of new genes themselves.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S. “The dynamic density bottle: a make-and-take, guided inquiry activity on density.” Journal Of Chemical Education no. 9 (2015): 1503.

Abstract: An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a “density bottle”. After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative densities of both the liquids and solids in the bottle, students are able to explain the curious floating and sinking phenomena. As a part of the activity, students construct their own bottles and are encouraged to describe to others how the density bottle works. These bottles can be constructed using inexpensive and easily obtained materials. The level of inquiry involved in the activity can be tailored to meet the particular interests and needs of students. Modifications to the density bottle, including an engaging one that uses LEGO pieces, are discussed.

Buratovich, Michael. “Where Are My Genes? Genomic Considerations on Darwin’s Doubt.” Reports of the National Center for Science Education 35, no. 4 (2015).

In his book Darwin’s Doubt (Meyer 2013), Discovery Institute philosopher of science and “intelligent design” proponent Stephen C Meyer makes some very unorthodox claims about animal origins. Evolutionary developmental biologists have shown over two decades of work that regardless of how animals look, most of them use a common “toolkit” of genes for their development. Furthermore, a respectable body of evidence shows that changes in animal body plans and body parts are driven by changes in gene regulation (Carroll 2000).

Buratovich, Michael.Darwin’s Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design.” Christian Scholar’s Review 44, no. 3 (Spring 2015): 314-317.

Abstract: The article reviews the book, “Darwin’s Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life & the Case for Intelligent Design” by Stephen C. Meyer.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., Nathan FordJin-Hwan No, and Mark E. Ott.A Molecular Explanation of How the Fog Is Produced when Dry Ice Is Placed in Water.” Journal Of Chemical Education 92, no. 4 (April 2015): 643-648. doi:10.1021/ed400754n

Abstract: Everyone enjoys seeing the cloudy white fog generated when solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is placed in water. Have you ever wondered what physical and chemical processes occur to produce this fog? When asked this question, many chemical educators suggest that the fog is produced when atmospheric water vapor condenses on cold carbon dioxide gas that sublimes through the water. But this explanation is incorrect, as shown by Luck and co-workers in an article previously published in J. Chem. Educ. Herein, we extend this previous work by presenting some simple experiments and explanations that provide a model for how the fog forms when dry ice is placed in water. Many of these experiments can be carried out using materials found at the pharmacy, grocery store, or hardware store. The explanations involved draw from many concepts taught in general chemistry such as vapor pressure and Le Châtelier’s principle.

Amin, Amr and Michael Buratovich.”The Anti-Cancer Charm of Flavonoids: A Cup of Tea Will Do You Good!.” In Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery, edited by Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary, 552-587. N.p.: Bentham Science, 2015.

Hormone-dependent cancers of the breast, prostate and colon have, in the past decade, become the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Billions of dollars have been spent to study cancers like these, and tremendous advancements in the understanding and treatment of cancer have been made. Nevertheless, as effective cures for a variety of cancers continue to elude us, natural protection against cancer has been receiving a great deal of attention lately not only from cancer researchers and patients, but also from physicians. Phytoestrogens, plantderived secondary metabolites, are diphenolic substances with structural similarity to naturally-occurring human steroid hormones. Phytoestrogens are normally divided into three main classes: flavonoids, coumestans and lignans. Flavonoids are found in almost all plant families in the leaves, stems, roots, flowers and seeds of plants, and are among the most popular anti-cancer candidates. Flavonoidic derivatives have a wide variety of biological actions that includes antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiallergic activities. Some of these benefits are explained by the potent antioxidant effects of flavonoids, which include metal chelation and free-radical scavenging activities. However particular phytoestrogens show a marked ability to induce programmed cell death in specific cancer cells, and delay or prevent the onset of discrete cancers altogether. Patent applications regarding flavonoids range from protocols for extraction and purification from natural resources and the establishment of various biological activities for these extracts to novel methods for the production and isolation of flavonoids with known biological activities. This review will bring the reader up to date on the current knowledge and research available in the field of flavonoids and hormone-dependent cancers, and some of the submitted patents that exploit flavonoids.

Buratovich, Michael. “The Singing Heart of the World: Creation, Evolution, and Faith.” Christian Scholar’s Review 43, no. 2 (2014): 195-197.

Feehan uses the word “acclaim” to refer 196 t° answer for questions of ultimate meaning. Because of this acclaim that each organism gives to its Creator, all living things and their ecosystems have value, and therefore, to destroy them as wantonly as we have is to destroy worshipers of the Maker of Heaven and Earth. […]Feehan defines the goal of humanity, or in his words, “human acclaim” (157).

Auday, Bryan C., Michael A., Buratovich, Geraldine F. Marrocco, and Paul Moglia. Magill’s Medical Guide 7th edition. Ipswich, Massachusetts : Amenia, NY: Salem Press, 2013.

Now in its seventh edition, Magill’s Medical Guide contains 1,200 entries in five volumes. Many essay topics are completely new to this edition, and all entries from the previous edition have been evaluated and updated by a panel of Medical Editors to ensure their currency and accuracy, as needed. All cross-references to other relevant entries in Magill’s Medical Guide have been revised. Every bibliography has been updated with the latest editions and sources, including Web sites for relevant organizations. All appendixes from the previous edition have been updated and checked for accuracy, and the “Medical Journals” list has been expanded to include standard title abbreviations, now serving as a key for users.

Buratovich, Michael AThe Stem Cell Epistles: Letters to My Students about Bioethics, Embryos, Stem Cells, and Fertility Treatments. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

Human embryos, it has been said, “have no muscles, nerves, digestive system, feet, hands, face, or brain; they have nothing to distinguish them as a human being, and if one of them died, no one would mourn as they would for one of us.” Consequently, early human embryos are being dismembered in laboratories around the world to produce embryonic stem cells, which, we are told, are the tools that will lead to the next quantum leap in medicine. Should Christians support such small sacrifices for something that might potentially relieve the suffering of millions, or should we vigorously oppose it?

Developmental biologist and professor of biochemistry Michael Buratovich was asked such a question (among others) by his students. This book contains his measured answers and provides support from the scientific literature to substantiate his claims. He shows that embryonic stem cells are unnecessary, since the renaissance in regenerative medicine is occurring largely without them. Furthermore, he sets forth the scientific and historic case that the embryo is the youngest and most vulnerable member of humanity, and that ones such as these are precisely those whom the Christian church worked to protect in the past—and should champion in the present.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., Kristen N. RohrerBruce W. BaldwinJennifer KingsleyCharles L. Schaerer, Deborah K. Sayers, and Vivian B. West. “Constructing an Annotated Periodic Table Created with Interlocking Building Blocks: A National Chemistry Week Outreach Activity for all Ages.” Journal of Chemical Education 90, no. 10 (Oct 08, 2013): 1346.

Abstract: An activity for a National Chemistry Week outreach event has been designed in which children construct a periodic table out of LEGO building bricks. During the activity, children followed simple instructions to build the symbol of a particular element onto a 5.25 in. x 5.25 in. LEGO base plate. Squares for all elements were constructed in this manner, resulting in a periodic table composed of over 6000 LEGO pieces. The finished product has been hung on a wall in the science center at Spring Arbor University. The table has unexpectedly become a unique conversation piece that allows for informal chemical education. In addition, high school students and others have added to the charm of the table by designing LEGO creations to place on the squares of certain elements. These LEGO creations are built so as to represent the element on the square on which it is placed. How the table was built, how the construction of the table was used as a hands-on activity at an outreach event, and how people were invited to build LEGO creations to donate to the table are described.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., Dakota J. Mork, Levi D. Norris, and Christopher D. Maniére-Spencer. “Creating and Experimenting with Fire Gel, an Inexpensive and Readily Prepared Insulating Material.” Journal of Chemical Education 90, no. 7 (July 2013): 947–949. doi:10.1021/ed3006506.

Abstract: A method is described to make Fire Gel, an insulating material that consists of water and a superabsorbent polymer. Fire Gel can be used to demonstrate how stunt persons protect themselves from the flame of a fire. A comparison of this Fire Gel demonstration with previously reported flame protection demonstrations allows for instructive discussion. Fire Gel is a useful, easily produced, and inexpensive alternative to the gel described in JCE Classroom Activity #107.

Pfaff, Lawrence A., Karyn J. Boatwright, Andrea L. Potthoff, Caitlin Finan, Leigh Ann Ulrey, and Daniel M. Huber.Perceptions of Women and Men Leaders Following 360‐Degree Feedback Evaluations.” Performance Improvement Quarterly 26, no. 1 (2013): 35-56.

Abstract: In this study, researchers used a customized 360-degree method to examine the frequency with which 1,546 men and 721 women leaders perceived themselves and were perceived by colleagues as using 10 relational and 10 task-oriented leadership behaviors, as addressed in the Management-Leadership Practices Inventory (MLPI). As hypothesized, men and women leaders, as well as their supervisors, employees, and peers, perceived women leaders to employ nine of the 10 relational leadership behaviors significantly more frequently than men leaders. Additionally, the employees’ perceptions of their women leaders’ use of task-oriented behaviors were significantly higher when compared to similar assessments from the employees of men leaders. However, the leaders as well as their supervisors and peers perceived men and women leaders’ use of task-oriented behaviors as approximately equal. Broader implications of these findings are discussed.

Williamson, J. Charles, Thomas S. Kuntzleman, and Rachael A. Kafader.A Molecular Iodine Spectral Data Set for Rovibronic Analysis.” Journal of Chemical Education 90, no. 3 (March 2013): 383–385. doi:10.1021/ed300455n.

Abstract: This article discusses a dry lab molecular iodine experiment conducted by undergraduate chemistry students at the Spring Arbor University in Michigan. The experiment involved a search by students of an online iodine spectral absorption atlas to find multiple transitions belonging to one of a number of vibronic brands. The authors add the class data were pooled for spectroscopic analysis of both the X and B states. The method used for generating the spectral data set is also described.

Kuntzleman, Thomas ScottKristen Rohrer, and Emeric Schultz. “The Chemistry of Lightsticks: Demonstrations To Illustrate Chemical Processes.” Journal of Chemical Education 89, no. 7 (2012): 910–916.

Abstract: Lightsticks, or glowsticks as they are sometimes called, are perhaps the chemist’s quintessential toy. Because they are easy to activate and appealing to observe, experimenting with lightsticks provides a great way to get young people interested in science. Thus, we have used lightsticks to teach chemical concepts in a variety of outreach settings and demonstration shows. Although these devices are simple to operate, a working lightstick depends upon a rich array of physicochemical processes. For example, the chemical processes involved in lightsticks include acid–base chemistry, redox reactions, quantum chemistry, and thermodynamics. Consequently, we have used lightstick experiments and demonstrations in general, inorganic, and physical chemistry classes. In this paper, we share some experiments and demonstrations with lightsticks that we have used in these various educational settings.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., Joshua B. KenneyScott Hasbrouck, Michael J. Collins, and John R. Amend. “Simple and Automated Coulometric Titration of Acid Using Nonisolated Electrodes.” Journal Of Chemical Education 88, no. 11 (November 2011): 1565-1568. doi: 10.1021/ed101072c

Abstract: The article discusses the coulometric titration of acid using nonisolated electrodes in the analytical chemistry and instrumental analysis education. It mentions the role of coulometric titrations in simplifying the titration process as they eliminate the preparation need for primary standard solutions and allow for unstable reagents generation. It also notes the use of nonisolated electrodes to simplify the experimental design on coulometric titration and the data acquisition instrumentation.

Buratovich, Michael A. “Recent Advances on the Origin of Life–Making Biological Polymers.” Reports of the National Center for Science Education 31, no. 1 (2011).

Abstract: The creationism–evolution debate almost always comes around to discussions about the origin of life. The enormousness of the problem of how organic chemicals (those compounds
that contain the element carbon) reacted to synthesize biological molecules like proteins, nucleic acids, membrane lipids, and others, and how these self-replicated and assembled to form the first protocells, represents an attractive target for critics. In addition, the respectable degree of uncertainty that surrounds present answers to origin-of-life questions, and the large diversity of the proposed solutions, represent ample fodder for those who would question the validity of the entire origin-of-life research program. Consequently, creationists have said a great deal about origin-of-life research, and none of it is positive.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., and Bruce W. Baldwin. “Adventures in Coaching Young Chemists.” Journal of Chemical Education 88, no. 7 (2011): 863–867. doi:10.1021/ed2002779.

Abstract: We believe that students should have opportunities—early and often—to learn about science and math activities in fun and recreational ways. As a result, we try to provide many science enrichment activities to the surrounding community. In doing so, we hope to inspire young students to become future scientists and mathematicians. Here we describe some annual science outreach events that we have hosted, share a few demonstrations and activities we have tried at these events, and discuss how we plan to connect our outreach in 2011 to the themes of the International Year of Chemistry.

Buratovich, Michael. “Inside the Human Genome: A Case for Non-Intelligent Design.” Christian Scholar’s Review 40, no. 2 (2011): 239-241.

Abstract: The University of California, Irvine’s Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, John C. Avise, is a very productive and highly respected scientist. His popular book, Inside the Human Genome, examines the content and structure of the human genome, but he moves beyond the bald facts about our genomes and tries to discern what they mean. The sequence of the human genome, according to Avise, provides strong evidence for the theory of evolution and even stronger evidence against the theory of intelligent design. More tellingly, Avise thinks that it tells us something profound about the problem of evil.

Baldwin, Bruce W.Scott HasbrouckJordan Smith, and Thomas S. Kuntzleman. “Classroom Activity Connections: Demonstrating Various Flame Tests Using Common Household Materials.” Journal of Chemical Education 87, no. 8 (2010): 790–792.

Abstract: In JCE Activity #67, “Flame Tests: Which Ion Causes the Color?”, Michael Sanger describes how to conduct flame tests with household items. We have used this activity in outreach settings, and have extended it in a variety of ways. For example, we have demonstrated large-scale strontium (red), copper (green), and carbon (blue) flames using only household items, and have helped children investigate the chemistry of sparklers and colored flame birthday candles.

Howder, Collin R., Kyle D. Groen, and Thomas S. Kuntzleman. “JCE Classroom Activity #107. And the Oscar Journal Of Chemical Education 87, no. 10 (October 2010): 1060-1061. doi: 10.1021/ed900013z

Abstract: A hands-on activity and demonstration, both applicable to the 2010 National Chemistry Week theme of Behind the Scenes with Chemistry, are presented. In the activity, students compare and contrast the properties of heat conductors and heat insulators. During the demonstration, students learn that water absorbed by a superabsorbent polymer can insulate material from a burning flame. Students also learn about Gary Zeller, a chemist who won an Academy Award for scientific achievement in 1988 for his invention of Zel Jel. Zel Jel is a mixture of water and polymers that is used in the special effects industry to protect actors from being burned when they are set on fire during filming.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., and Christopher Richards. “Another Method for Determining the Pressure inside an Intact Carbonated Beverage Can (or Bottle).” Journal Of Chemical Education 87, no. 9 (September 2010): 993. doi: 10.1021/ed100255g

Abstract: Previous letters and articles in this Journal have described methods for finding the pressure of CO2 inside carbonated beverages. One communication in particular describes a method for estimating this pressure without even opening the container. This communication describes yet another method, using a combination of Henry’s law and freezing point depression measurements, for quantitative determination of CO2 inside carbonated beverages without opening the container.

Buratovich, Michael. “Why Evolution is True/Why Evolution Works (and Creationism Fails).” Christian Scholar’s Review 39, no. 3 (2010): 358-362.

Abstract: While they mention Recent Creationism and address some of its objections to Neo-Darwinism, Young and Strode note that the Supreme Court outlawed the teaching of “Creation Science” in its 1987 Edwards v. Aguillard case. […] for their purposes, Young and Strode see Recent Creationism as a toothless tiger, and tend to focus more on the new challenger to Neo-Darwinism, ID theory. […] in their chapter on the cosmologica! case for design, Young and Strode use the computer simulations of physicist Victor Stenger to cast doubt on the fine-tuning argument.

Amend, John R., Greg Stewart, Thomas S. Kuntzleman, and Michael J. Collins. “Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry.” Journal of Chemical Education 86, no. 9 (2009): 1080.

Abstract: Cyclic voltammetry is a topic that may be incorporated in the analytical (1), inorganic (2), or physical chemistry (3) curriculum. A number of articles in this Journal have described both the process of cyclic voltammetry and experiments involving cyclic voltammetry (4, 5). However, experiments in cyclic voltammetry are often excluded from the undergraduate laboratory, probably owing to the prohibitive cost of equipment required. Pine Research Instrumentation (6) has recently released a low-cost voltammetry cell along with inexpensive disposable carbon electrodes designed for student use in the undergraduate laboratory curriculum.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., and Alice Haddy. “Fluoride inhibition of photosystem II and the effect of removal of the PsbQ subunit.” Photosynthesis Research 102, no. 1 (2009): 7. doi: 10.1007/s11120-009-9469-4

Abstract: Photosystem II (PSII), the light-absorbing complex of photosynthesis that evolves oxygen, requires chloride for activation of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). In this study, fluoride was characterized as an inhibitor of Cl–activated oxygen evolution in higher plant PSII. It was confirmed to be primarily a competitive inhibitor in intact PSII, with Cl–competitive inhibition constant Ki = 2 mM and uncompetitive inhibition constant $${\text{K}}_{\text{i}}^{\prime }$$ = 79 mM. A pH dependence study showed that fluoride inhibition was more pronounced at lower pH values. In order to determine the location of the fluoride effect, PSII preparations lacking various amounts of the PsbQ subunit were prepared. The competitive F- inhibition constant and the Michaelis constant for Cl- activation increased with loss of the PsbQ subunit, while the uncompetitive F- inhibition constant was relatively insensitive to loss of PsbQ. The S2 state EPR signals from PSII lacking PsbQ responded to Ca2+ and Cl- removal and to F- treatment similar to intact PSII, with enhancement of the g = 4.1 signal and suppression of the multiline signal, but the effects were more pronounced in PSII lacking PsbQ. Together, these results support the interpretation that the PsbQ subunit has a role in retaining anions within the OEC.

Amin, Amr, and Michael A. Buratovich. “New Platinum and Ruthenium Complexes – the Latest Class of Potential Chemotherapeutic Drugs – a Review of Recent Developments in the Field.” Mini Reviews In Medicinal Chemistry 9, no. 13 (2009): 1489-1503. doi:  10.2174/138955709790361566

Abstract: New Platinum and Ruthenium complexes display antitumour and antimetastatic potentials and lower host toxicities. This mini-review examines some the more recent developments in this field, and explores their interactions with biologically-relevant species. The article also refers to more recent work in the area of molybdenum and copper(II) chemistry.

Buratovich, Michael A. “The Evolution Controversy: A Survey of Competing Theories.” Christian Scholar’s Review 38, no. 2 (2009): 301-303.

Abstract: […] the authors state that a prediction of Darwin’s theory was that “nature will preserve even the slightest variation that proves beneficial,” but that “population genetics calculations show that single mutations, even if positive, usually only have a small chance of survival” (57). […] relativistic effects result in billions of years passing in the rest of the universe while only thousands pass near the Earth, which explains how billion-year-old stars and galaxies can exist in a universe only a few thousand years old.\n Several eukaryotic organisms have flagella that do not display the standard 9 + 2 arrangement. […] the book misses a primary problem with alternatives to evolutionary theory scientific assertions must pass through the flames of peer-review and colleague confirmation before they are admitted into a classroom.

Schullery, Nancy M., Stephen E. Schullery, Paul Knudstrup, and Lawrence A. Pfaff. “The Relationship between Personality Type and 360-Degree Evaluation of Management Skills.” Journal of Psychological Type 69, no. 11 (2009): 141-155.

Abstract: The relationship between managers’ MBTI®-based personality type and their 360-degree evaluations based on the Management-Leadership Practices Inventory (MLPI) was examined. Correlations were computed between managers’ memberships in 52 personality type groups and their scores on 20 essential managerial skills, average skill scores, and people-related and task-related factor scores—all assessed by boss, employees, peers, and self. Among the many relationships observed was the unanimous positive evaluation of SJ managers’ task-factor skills by their bosses, employees, and peers. ENP and ENFP managers were also rated positively overall and on the people factor by their peers. In contrast, SP managers were rated negatively overall and on the task factor by their peers, and ISTP managers received negative overall ratings by both peers and employees. NJ, INJ, and ESFP managers received negative ratings by their bosses either overall or on the task factor. In several cases, change of a single letter could shift the group from a negative to a positive category: NJs to SJs, ISTPs to ISTJs, and ESFPs to ENFPs. There was no relationship with the E-I preference.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., Anna E. Comfort, and Bruce W. Baldwin. “Glowmatography.” Journal Of Chemical Education 86, no. 1 (January 2009): 64-67. doi: 10.1021/ed086p64

Abstract: The article examines the chemical reactions involving chemiluminescence. It cites that a simple exercise is described featuring the separation of the contents of an activated lightstick using a chromatography column. The exercise can be used to teach a variety of topics in a variety of settings. It would appeal to chemists of various chemical skill levels, whether used in summer camp or in the physical chemistry laboratory. It would illuminate important concepts and techniques in chemistry, whether illustrating the process of chromatographic separations, presenting lecture demonstrations, or conducting laboratory experiments.

Kuntzleman, Thomas S., David Sellers, and Rachel Hoffmeyer. “‘ Having a Ball with Chemistry’: More Things to Try.” Journal of Chemical Education 85, no. 11 (2008): 1478.

Abstract: A short outreach activity is described in which students test the rebound properties of superballs, racquetballs, “happy” balls and “sad balls” at many temperatures. After conducting the experiment, students use the test results to estimate the glass transition temperature of the elastic polymer that comprises each ball. The activity is used to segue into the classic demonstration of dipping a racquetball in liquid nitrogen and watching it shatter when thrown against a hard surface. In addition, students are encouraged to relate the results of the experiment to the importance of warming up muscles before exercise.

Buratovich, Michael. “Monkey Girl: Evolution, Education, Religion, and the Battle for America’s Soul/40 Days and 40 Nights: Darwin, Intelligent Design, God, Oxycontin, and Other Oddities on Trial in Pennsylvania.” Christian Scholar’s Review 37, no. 2 (Winter, 2008): 253-257.

Abstract: The city of Dover, Pennsylvania is located approximately thirty miles south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. You would not expect this small town to make national news, but on November 19, 2004, the Dover Area School District issued a press release that required biology teachers to read a statement to their ninth-grade biology students that said, in part: “Intelligent Design is an explanation of the origin of the life that differs from Darwin’s view. The reference book, Of Pandas and People, is available for students who might be interested in gaining an understanding of what Intelligent Design actually involves . . . .” This statement sparked the famous Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. v. Dover Area School District, et al. trial, in which John E. Jones, Federal judge for the Middle District of Pennsylvania, ruled that the Dover Area School Board attempted to introduce religion into public schools and that Intelligent Design (ID) is not science and has no place in a high school biology class.

Buratovich, Michael. “The Origin of Eukaryotic cells.(Communication)(Report).” Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith no. 3 (2007): 219.

Abstract: The cells of modern organisms come in two main structural types: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells, which are represented by the eubacteria and archaea, contain precious little internal compartmentalization and have transcriptionally coupled translation, whereas eukaryotic cells, which compose plants, fungi, algae, animals, and a widely diverse group of unicellular protists, are equipped with a large cadre of intracellular compartments that are functionally specialized for specific intracellular tasks.

Swanson, Matthew S., Deborah K. Sayers, and Thomas S. Kuntzleman. “Visualizing the Transition State: A Hands-on Approach to the Arrhenius Equation.” Journal of Chemical Education 84, no. 11 (2007): 1776.

Abstract: An exercise is presented in which the kinetics of the irreversible “reaction” of pennies in the heads-up state to pennies in the tails-up state is simulated by a hands-on, Monte Carlo approach. In addition, the exercise incorporates a second simulation in which the irreversible “reaction” of dice with a red face uppermost to a blue face uppermost is conducted. The transition states of the reactions are assumed to be a penny that is in the process of being flipped or a die in the process of being rolled, respectively. Data collected by students who perform these simulations show that both “reactions” follow first-order decay kinetics. Arrhenius plots from these data yield activation energies comparable to assigned values and pre-exponential factors close to what would be expected based on the probability of a “reactant” achieving the correct orientation for conversion into “product”. A comparison of the values obtained for the pre-exponential factors for the different simulations allows students to semi-quantitatively discuss the orientational requirement that is contained within this factor.

Amin, Amr, and Michael Buratovich. “The Anti-Cancer Charm of Flavonoids: A Cup-of-Tea Will Do!.” Recent Patents On Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery 2, no. 2 (June 2007): 109-117. doi: 10.2174/157489207780832414

Abstract: Hormone-dependent cancers of the breast, prostate and colon have, in the past decade, become the leading causes of morbidityand mortality. Billions of dollars have been, and still are being spent to study cancers like these, and, in the past three decades, thanks towork by thousands of dedicated scientists, tremendous advancements in the understanding and treatment of cancer have been made. Nevertheless, as there is no sure-fire cure for a variety of cancers to date, natural protection against cancer has been receiving a great deal of attention lately not only from cancer patients but, surprisingly, from physicians as well. Phytoestrogens, plant-derived secondary metabolites, are diphenolic substances with structural similarity to naturally-occurring human steroid hormones. Phytoestrogens are normally divided into three main classes: flavonoids, coumestans and lignans. Flavonoids are found in almost all plant families in the leaves, stems, roots, flowers and seeds of plants and are among the most popular anti-cancer candidates. Flavonoidic derivatives have a wide range of biological actions such as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiallergic activities. Some of these benefits are explained by the potent antioxidant effects of flavonoids, which include metal chelation and free-radical scavenging activities. Patent applications regarding flavonoids range from protocols for extraction and purification from natural resources and the establishment of various biological activities for these extracts to novel methods for the production and isolation of flavonoids with known biological activities. This review will bring the reader up to date on the current knowledge and research available in the field of flavonoids and hormone-dependent cancers, and many of the submitted patents that exploit flavonoids.

Labban, Abdul, Roger Berg, Jian ZhouDavid A. Johnson, and Edgar F. Westrum. “Heat capacities and derived thermodynamic properties of lithium, sodium, and potassium disilicates from T =(5 to 350)K in both vitreous and crystalline states.” Journal Of Chemical Thermodynamics 39, no. 7 (July 2007): 991-1000. doi: 10.1016/j.jct.2007.01.001

Abstract: Abstract: Cryogenic heat capacities determined by equilibrium adiabatic calorimetry from T =(6 to 350)K on Li, Na, and K disilicates in both crystalline and vitreous phases are adjusted to end member composition and the vitreous/crystal difference ascertained. The thermophysical properties of these and related phases are estimated, compared, and updated. The values at T =298.15K of {S ∘(T)− S ∘(0)}/R for stoichiometric compositions of alkali disilicate (M2O·2SiO2): vitreous, crystal: Li, 16.30, 14.65; Na, 20.67, 19.47; and K, 23.26, 23.00. Entropy differences confirm greater disorder in the vitreous compounds compared with the crystalline compounds. The entropy data also show that disorder increases with decreasing atomic mass of the alkali ion.

Revesz, Peter, and Shasha Wu. “Spatiotemporal reasoning about epidemiological data.” Artificial Intelligence In Medicine no. 2 (2006): 157.

Abstract: In this article, we propose new methods to visualize and reason about spatiotemporal epidemiological data. Efficient computerized reasoning about epidemics is important to public health and national security, but it is a difficult task because epidemiological data are usually spatiotemporal, recursive, and fast changing hence hard to handle in traditional relational databases and geographic information systems. We describe the general methods of how to (1) store epidemiological data in constraint databases, (2) handle recursive epidemiological definitions, and (3) efficiently reason about epidemiological data based on recursive and non-recursive Structured Query Language (SQL) queries. We implement a particular epidemiological system called West Nile Virus Information System (WeNiVIS) that enables the visual tracking of and reasoning about the spread of the West Nile Virus (WNV) epidemic in Pennsylvania. In the system, users can do many interesting reasonings based on the spatiotemporal dataset and the recursively defined risk evaluation function through the SQL query interfaces. In this article, the WeNiVIS system is used to visualize and reason about the spread of West Nile Virus in Pennsylvania as a sample application. Beside this particular case, the general methodology used in the implementation of the system is also appropriate for many other applications. Our general solution for reasoning about epidemics and related spatiotemporal phenomena enables one to solve many problems similar to WNV without much modification.

Klein Villa, Karen. “Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Convergences in Nonconscious Lexical Processing: Response to Orsucci.”Neuro-Psychoanalysis 8, no. 2 (2006): 155-157.

Abstract: Responds to a comment by Franco Orsucci (see record 2007-00094-005) on the original article by Karen Klein Villa et al (see record 2007-00094-002). The authors are grateful to the commentators for their scholarly and thought-provoking response to our target article and for the interesting theoretical and technical questions their response has generated. The Shevrin group has engaged in a long tradition of subliminal perception studies addressing a number of phenomena regarding primary- and secondary-process mentation, including physiological markers of unconscious conflict, affect, defense, and the attributional vs. relational nature of these two modes of processing. The current study focuses on the nature of language processing in the unconscious, where we hypothesized that words would be treated as perceptual stimuli and processed in a bidirectional manner. We sought to determine if the structural aspect of a lexical item was processed separately from its referent or semantic associate. This type of lexical modularity was postulated early on by Freud and has been outlined in contemporary models of language architecture. As stated previously, our palindrome finding did not emerge as a main effect; however, once the moderating variables of stimulus detectability and anxiety were taken into account, the perceptual treatment of words in the subliminal condition did emerge. In particular, high anxiety activated semantic associations and low anxiety inhibited semantic associations to the palindrome prime. We propose, therefore, that novel and creative sequencing of linguistic units (i.e., the word is treated as a perceptual object) predominates in unconscious cognitive processing and that this novel sequencing potentially contributes to ambiguity exploitation and resolution for such processes as condensation and displacement.

Klein Villa, Karen, Howard Shevrin, Michael Snodgrass, Ariane Bazan, and Linda A. W. Brakel. “Testing Freud’s Hypothesis that Word Forms and Word Meaning are Functionally Distinct: Subliminal Primary-Process Cognition and its Link to Personality.” Neuro-Psychoanalysis 8, no. 2 (2006): 117-138.

Abstract: One of Freud’s seminal hypotheses first appearing in his monograph On Aphasia (1891) posited that word meaning and word presentation (e.g., phonemic and graphemic properties) needed to be distinguished if aphasic symptoms were to be accurately understood. In his later psychoanalytic writing, this supposition was generalized to refer to the primary-process uses of language in dreams, symptom formation, and unconscious processes (1900, 1915). To test Freud’s hypothesis that word meaning and word presentation are functionally distinct when processed unconsciously (Freud, 1891, 1915), 50 participants were tested with a priming paradigm in which a “palindrome” prime, presented either subliminally or supraliminally, was followed by two target alternatives. In the forward condition, the prime (e.g. DOG) was followed with a semantic associate (e.g. CANINE) and a distractor. In the “palindrome” condition, the prime was followed with a semantic associate of the reversed word (e.g. ANGEL) and a distractor. The participants’ task was to choose the word they preferred. The supraliminal results confirm classical semantic priming, but only in the forward condition. Subliminally, however, while no main results emerged, there were interaction effects with self-rated personality factors and stimulus detectability. High trait anxiety induced priming facilitation, while in low anxiety there was inhibition, for both forward and palindrome conditions. On the other hand, high scores on the Hysteroid-Obsessoid Questionnaire, a measure of repressiveness, led to inhibition of the priming effect while facilitation was observed with low scores–but only for forward priming. Consistently, these interaction effects were even stronger when stimulus detectability was low than at higher levels of detectability, ruling out any skeptical account that the measured effects might be due to residual conscious perception. Taken together, these findings support Freud’s hypothesis that the perceptual object dimension of a word, being functionally distinct from its meaning, can give rise to novel sequential processing, an effect that is more likely to occur unconsciously (i.e., d́′ ≤ 0) and under conditions of anxiety.

Buratovich, Michael. “Dawkin’s God: Genes, Memes, and the Meaning of Life.” Christian Scholar’s Review 35, no. 2 (Winter, 2006): 280-283.

Abstract: With respect to Dawkins’ refutation of William’Paley’s “God as the Divine Watchmaker” hypothesis, McGrath points out that Paley’s Natural Theology “represents the late and final flowering of a movement that came into being in the aftermath of the great Newtonian revolution of the late seventeenth century, and which had completely lost its way by the middle of the eighteenth century” (69). Finally, the quote from River out of Eden that speaks of DNA as digital information and creatures as survival machines that act as mere vessels to carry this information can hardly mean that Dawkins wishes to reduce all social behavior to kin selection, since he said as much about human behavior in The Selfish Gene.

Buratovich, Michael. “A Matter of Days.” Christian Scholar’s Review 35, no. 1 (Fall, 2005): 116-118.

Abstract: Instead of seeing all life as having descended from a common ancestor, Ross is a Progressive Creationist, contending that God episodically created, by divine fiat, different types of plants and animals to inhabit the earth over distinct periods of time; these episodic creations included, most recently, the miraculous creation of mankind. Third, sequencing of mitochondrial DNA from the haplochromines (cichlid fishes) of Lake Victoria, which is only 12,400 years old, has definitively shown that among fourteen fish species from distinct trophic groups (insect-eaters, fish-eaters, algae-scrapers, snail-crushers, shail-shellers and pedophages), only fifteen base substitutions have occurred amongst the more than eight hundred bases examined.

Ball, Thomas M. “God as My Therapist.” Psychology Today 38, no. 4 (July 2005): 8.

Abstract: Presents a letter to the editor in response to the article “With God As My Shrink,” in the June 2005 issue.

Buratovich, Michael. “Uncommon Dissent: Intellectuals Who Find Darwinism Unconvincing/Creationism’s Trojan Horse: The Wedge of Intelligent Design.” Christian Scholar’s Review 34, no. 3 (Spring, 2005): 382-386.

Abstract: Buratovich reviews Uncommon Dissent: Intellectuals who Find Darwinism Unconvincing edited by William A. Dembski and Creationism’s Trojan Horse: The Wedge of Intelligent Design by Barbara Forrest and Paul R. Gross.

Buratovich, Michael. “Perspectives on an Evolving Creation.” Christian Scholar’s Review 34, no. 1 (Fall, 2004): 136-138.

Abstract: …Kansas State paleontologist Keith Miller has assembled an impressive cadre of contributors who believe in both evolution and the orthodox Christian faith. The contributors to this book hail from Christian schools like Calvin, Messiah, and Wheaton to name a few, and secular universities like UCLA, University of Alabama, and Johns Hopkins University. The resulting volume is highly educational and informative even if it is a little uneven in places.

Baldwin, Bruce. “What Is the Proper Regulation of Controlled Substances at Educational Institutions?” Journal of Chemical Education 81, no. 8 (August 2004): 1121–1121.

Abstract: Presents a response to a letter to the editor about his article “Triboluminescent Crystals from the Microwave Oven,” published in the periodical.

Buratovich, Michael and Thomas Buratovich. “Battle for the Beginning: Creation, Evolution and the Bible.” Christian Scholar’s Review 32, no. 4 (Summer, 2003): 455.

Abstract: Well-known pastor and radio preacher John MacArthur wrote The Battle for the Beginning to “examine what the biblical text teaches about creation” (29), but not to “get into in-depth scientific arguments related to the origin of our universe” (29). The Battle for the Beginning shows the problems that potentially surface when a gifted expositor writes an authoritative text outside his area of expertise.

Baldwin, Bruce W. “Manual Microscale Column Chromatography Pressurization Apparatus.” Journal Of Chemical Education 80, no. 10 (October 2003): 1182. doi:

Abstract: Pressurization of a Pasteur pipet for microscale chromatography is simplified by connecting a 20- or 30-mL syringe to the pipet using a length of Tygon tubing. This simple system allows the student to easily dry-pack a column using common chromatography packing materials. Results were uniformly good for introductory, organic, or upper-division research chemistry students.

Wilhite, David M., and Bruce W. Baldwin. “Triboluminescent Crystals from the Microwave Oven.” Journal of Chemical Education 79, no. 11 (2002): 1344.

Abstract: Anthranilic acid was acetylated in a microwave oven (1,000 W) by irradiating for one minute at full power in a 100 mL beaker fitted with a glass funnel as condenser. After cooling, yellow fluorescing crystals were often obtained; but, if not, recrystallization from 10% water–methanol yielded cubes that fluoresced brightly under 360 nm light. Crushing the crystals between two watch glasses in a darkened room demonstrated the triboluminescent effect (i.e., the production of bright blue sparks when the crystals are fractured).

Hauger, Garnet S. “Instantaneous rate of change: a numerical approach.” International Journal Of Mathematical Education In Science & Technology 31, no. 6 (November 2000): 891-897.

Abstract: The calculus reform movement has encouraged numerical and graphical approaches to functions in addition to the more traditional analytical approach. While valiant efforts have been made to use these other approaches in newer calculus curricula, more numerical approaches should be introduced. Research on student learning in calculus indicates that particular numerical approaches hold promise for students’ learning of instantaneous rate of change. Numerical approaches involving the average rate of change over successively smaller intervals can be used to obtain the instantaneous rate of change for a given function at a given value of x. These approaches can help students appreciate the fundamental relationship between average and instantaneous rates of change. They can also be used to obtain general expressions for the derivative of most elementary functions. Standard computer spreadsheet programs facilitate this process and make numerical approaches a more viable option for calculus instruction. These are underutilized resources for instruction in calculus, even in reform or other new calculus curricula.